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LNG - Fires & Explosions

Overview


If LNG is spilled, it vaporizes. The natural gas vapors are initially heavier than air and they form a cloud close to the ground, which is pushed downwind and eventually dissipates. If a viable ignition source is present where a vapor cloud exists at a 5%–15% concentration in air, the vapor cloud can ignite and burn. Exponent’s scientists and engineers have significant experience in the investigation, analysis, and prevention of fires and explosions, and we use this experience to assist clients in both a reactive investigation mode in working to prevent such incidents from happening.

Related Publications

Morrison DR, Hart RJ, Kytömaa HK. Guidelines for jetting and flashing LNG vapor exclusion zone analysis. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2012 Spring National Meeting, LNG Plant Safety and Protection Session, Houston, TX, April 1–5, 2012.

Morse TL, Kytömaa HK. The effect of turbulence on the rate of evaporation of LNG on water. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 2011; 24:791–797.

Ponchaut NF, Kytömaa HK, Morrison DR, Chernovsky MK. Modeling the vapor source term associated with the spill of LNG into a sump or impoundment area. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries; Nov 2011; 24(5):870–878.

Gavelli F, Chernovsky MK, Bullister E, Kytomaa HK. Quantification of source-level turbulence during LNG spills onto a water pond. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries; Aug 2009; 22:809–819.

Gavelli F, Chernovsky M, Kytomaa H. Modelling pool hazards from large-scale liquefied natural gas spills. Exploration Production: Oil Gas Rev 2008; 6(2):76–82.

Gavelli F, Bullister E, Kytömaa H. Applications of CFD (fluent) to LNG spills into geometrically complex environments. Proceedings, 2006 Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center International Symposium, pp. 468-485, 2006.

Gavelli F, Kytömaa H. Liquefied natural gas transportation. Coast Guard J Safety at Sea 2005; 62(3):33-36.

Boehm P, Kytömaa H, Moncarz P. LNG projects: Myths and realities of environmental and safety risks. ABA Energy Committees Newsletter 2005; 3(1):7-10.

Kytömaa H, Gavelli F. Studies of LNG spills over water point up need for improvement. Oil Gas J 2005; May 9.