Brent Kerger
Brent D. Kerger, Ph.D., DABT
Principal Scientist
Health Sciences
  • Orange County

A board-certified toxicologist, Dr. Kerger specializes in the study of environmental chemical fate and transport, exposure assessment, pharmacokinetics, and adverse human health effects. He has over 32 years of experience conducting and managing laboratory, field, and clinical studies of exposure, toxicology, epidemiology, and disease causation analysis. He provides scientific and strategic consultation regarding regulatory and litigation matters including 23 years of environmental chemistry and toxicology expert witness experience. He has in-depth expertise regarding asbestos, talc, dioxins and furans, PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated solvents, benzene and petroleum products, irritant gases, flavoring chemicals, and heavy metals.

He has over 28 years of experience as a professional toxicologist focusing on:

  • Multi-disciplinary research in fate/transport, exposure assessment and toxicokinetics;
  • Design and implementation of studies to characterize exposure/dose and toxicity;
  • Human health and ecological risk assessments including complex indirect pathways;
  • Evidence-based approaches for analysis of epidemiologic studies; and
  • Disease causation analysis using the Hill Criteria and alternative cause assessment.

A board-certified toxicologist since 1994, Dr. Kerger has extensive experience in evaluating scientific issues involving claims of chemical causation or increased risk of diseases in humans in regulatory and litigation settings. He has thoroughly researched key toxicological issues surrounding human exposures to a broad range of chemicals and mineral dusts. Dr. Kerger guides the optimized research capabilities and access to resources (expertise and information) that promote an integrated, multi-disciplinary perspective to addressing scientific issues. He has designed and implemented a variety of field studies, laboratory studies, and clinical studies aimed at characterizing chemical exposure and toxicity. He has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals on chemical toxicity, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis, evidence-based analysis, and innovative exposure and risk assessment techniques.

CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS

  • Ph.D., Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 1988
  • B.S., Chemistry, Florida State University, 1983

LICENSES & CERTIFICATIONS

Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology (DABT) since 1994

Publications

Kerger, BD, Bernal, A, Paustenbach, DJ, and Huntley-Fenner, G. 2016. Halo and spillover effect illustrations for selected highly beneficial medical devices and drugs. BioMedCentral Public Health (accepted).

Kerger, BD and Fedoruk, MJ. Pathology, toxicology and latency of irritant gases known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans disease: does diacetyl fit the pattern? Toxicology Reports 2015; 2:1463-1472.

Kerger BD, Gerads R, Gurleyuk H, Urban A, and Paustenbach DJ. Total cobalt determination in human blood and synovial fluid using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Method validation and evaluation of performance variables affecting metal hip implant patient samples. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 2015;97(9):1145-1163.

Scott P, Abelmann A, Hoyt S, and Kerger B. Headspace and small chamber studies of airborne diacetyl release from selected food flavoring mixtures: Activity coefficients and air modeling implications. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 2015; 97(10):1319-1336.

Tvermoes BE, Paustenbach DJ, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Unice KM. Review of cobalt toxicokinetics: Implications for health risk assessment and metal-on-metal hip implant patients. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2015;45:367-387.

Kerger BD, Thuett KA, Finley BL. Evaluation of four alpha-diketones for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) activation in a human transfected cell line. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2014; 74:117–119.

Tvermoes BE, Banducci AM, Devlin KD, Kerger BD, Abramson MM, Bebenek IG, Monnot AD. Screening level health risk assessment of selected metals in apple juice sold in the United States. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2014; 71:42–50.

Kerger BD, James RC, Galbraith DA. Tumors that mimic asbestos-related mesothelioma: Time to consider a genetics-based tumor registry? Frontiers in Genetics 2014; 5(151):1–14. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00151

Finley BL, Unice KM, Kerger BD, Otani JM, Paustenbach DJ, Galbraith DA, Tvermoes BE. 31-day study of cobalt (II) chloride ingestion in humans: Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 2013; 76:1210–1224.

Kerger BD, Gerads R, Gurleyuk H, Thuett KA, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. 2013. Cobalt speciation assay for human serum, part I. Method for measuring large and small molecular cobalt and protein-binding capacity using size exclusion chromatography with inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy detection. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 95(4):687–708.

Kerger BD, Tvermoes BE, Unice KM, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ, Galbraith DA. Cobalt speciation assay for human serum, part II. Method validation in a study of human volunteers ingesting cobalt (II) chloride dietary supplement for 90 days. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 2013; 95(4):709–718.

Paustenbach DJ, Tvermoes BE, Unice KM, Finley BL, Kerger BD. A review of the health hazards posed by cobalt. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2013; 43(4):316–362.

Hollins DM, Kerger BD, Unice KM, Knutsen JS, Madl AK, Sahmel JE, Paustenbach DJ. Airborne benzene exposures from cleaning metal surfaces with small volumes of petroleum solvents. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2013; 216:324–332.

Richter RO, Kerger BD, Hoyt S, Fedoruk MJ. Total aromatic content in petroleum solvents modifies headspace benzene vapor concentration: Implications for exposure assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2013;19:354–373.

Knutsen JS, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. A calibrated human PBPK model for benzene inhalation with urinary bladder and bone marrow compartments. Risk Analysis 2013; 33(7):1237–1251.

Paustenbach DJ, Kerger BD. The University of Michigan dioxin exposure study: Estimating residential soil and house dust exposures to young children. Chemosphere 2013; 91:200–204.

Keenan JJ, Gaffney S, Gross SA, Ronk CJ, Paustenbach DJ, Galbraith D, Kerger BD. An evidence-based analysis of epidemiologic associations between lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to gasoline. Human and Experimental Toxicology 2013; 32(10):1007-1027. DOI: 10.1177/0960327113476909.

Kerger BD, Scott PK, Pavuk M, Gough M, Paustenbach DJ. Re-analysis of Ranch Hand Study supports reverse causation hypothesis between dioxin and diabetes. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2012; 42(8):669–687

Kerger BD, Copeland TL, DeCaprio AP. Tenuous dose-response correlations for common disease states: Case study of cholesterol and perfluorooctanoate/sulfonate (PFOA/PFOS) in the C8 Health Project. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2011; 34(4):396–404.

Kerger BD, Butler WJ, Paustenbach DJ, Zhang JD, Li SK. Cancer mortality in Chinese populations surrounding an alloy plant with chromium smelting operations. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 2009; 72:329–344.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Scott PK, Paustenbach DJ. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Chemosphere 2007; 67:S272–S278.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Scott PK, Paustenbach DJ. Adaptable internal dose model for risk assessment of dietary and soil dioxin exposures in young children. Toxicological Sciences 2007; 100:224–237.

Leung H-W, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Ryan JJ, Masuda Y. Concentration and age-dependent elimination kinetics of polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Yucheng and Yusho patients. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2007; 23(6):493–501.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Scott PK, Paustenbach DJ, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Gerthoux PM, Mocarelli P. Age- and concentration dependent elimination half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Seveso children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(10):1596–1602.

Leung H-W, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. Elimination half lives of selected polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in breast-fed human infants. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 2006; 69:437–443.

Paustenbach DJ, Fehling K, Scott P, Harris M, Kerger BD. Identifying soil clean-up criteria for dioxins in residential soils: How has 20 years of research and risk assessment experience affected the analysis? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 2006; 9:87–145.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD. Ammonia exposure and hazard assessment for selected household cleaning product uses. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005; 15:534–544.

Kerger BD, Suder DR, Schmidt CE, Paustenbach DJ. Airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in homes with refrigeration-type and evaporative cooling systems. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2005; 68:1–29.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Paustenbach DJ, Needham L, Patterson D, Gerthoux PM, Mocarelli P. Age- and concentration-dependent elimination half life of TCDD in Seveso children. Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:1726–1729.

Leung H-W, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Ryan JJ, Masuda Y. Age- and concentration-dependent elimination half lives of chlorinated dibenzofurans in Yusho and Yucheng patients. Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:1589–1592.

Paustenbach DJ, Fehling KA, Harris MA, Scott PK, Kerger BD. Identifying soil clean-up criteria for dioxins in residential soils: How has 20 years of research and risk assessment experience impacted the analysis? Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:2483–2486.

Paustenbach DJ, Leung HW, Scott PK, Kerger BD. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half-lives. Organohalogen Compounds 2004; 66:2714–2721.

Warren DA, Kerger BD, Britt JK, James RC. Development of an oral cancer slope factor for Aroclor 1268. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2004; 40(1):42–53.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD. Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2003; 13:31–41.

Fedoruk MJ, Bronstein R, Kerger BD. Benzene exposure assessment for use of a mineral spirits-based degreaser. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2003; 18:764–771.

Paustenbach DJ, Finley BL, Mowat FS, Kerger BD. Human health risk assessment of chromium(VI) in tap water. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 2003; 66(14):1295–1339.

O’Flaherty EO, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for the ingestion of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by humans. Toxicological Sciences 2001; 60:196–213.

Kerger BD, Schmidt CE, Paustenbach DJ. Assessment of airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in residential showers and baths. Risk Analysis 2000; 20(5):637–651.

Langard S, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. Cancer causation and assessment of relative contribution for known causes of human cancers: Case examples involving hexavalent chromium. Hazardous Waste Strategies Update 1999; 10(2):14–26.

Corbett GE, Dodge DG, O’Flaherty E, Liang J, Throop L, Finley BL, Kerger BD. In vitro reduction kinetics of hexavalent chromium in human blood. Environmental Research 1998;7:7–11.

Corbett GE, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ, Kerger BD. Systemic uptake of chromium in human volunteers following dermal contact with hexavalent chromium (22 mg/L): Implications for risk assessment. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 1997; 7(2):179–189.

Finley BL, Kerger BD, Corbett GE, Katona M, Gargas M, Reitz R, Paustenbach DJ. Human ingestion of chromium (VI) in drinking water: pharmacokinetics following repeated exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1997; 142:151–159.

Kerger BD, Finley BL, Corbett GE, Dodge DG, Paustenbach DJ. Ingestion of chromium (VI) in drinking water by human volunteers: absorption, distribution, and excretion of single and repeated doses. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1997; 50:67–95.

De Flora S, Camoirano A, Bagnasco M, Bennicelli C, Corbett GE, Kerger BD. Estimates of the chromium(VI) reducing capacity in human body compartments as a mechanism for attenuating its potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis 1996; 18(3):531–537.

Finley BL, Kerger BD, Dodge DG, Meyers SM, Richter RO, Paustenbach DJ. Assessment of airborne hexavalent chromium in the home following use of contaminated tap water. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 1996; 6(2):229–245.

Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Corbett GE, Finley BL. Absorption and elimination of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in humans following ingestion of a bolus dose in drinking water. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1996; 141:145–158.

Kerger BD, Richter RO, Chute SM, Dodge DG, Overman SK, Liang J, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Refined exposure assessment for ingestion of tap water contaminated with hexavalent chromium: Considerations of exogenous and endogenous reducing agents. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 1996; 6(2):163–179.

Kuykendall JR, Kerger BD, Jarvi EJ, Corbett GE Paustenbach DJ. Measurement of DNA-protein cross-links in human leukocytes following acute ingestion of chromium in drinking water. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17(9):1971–1977.

Mirsalis JC, Hamilton CM, O’Loughlin KG, Paustenbach DJ, Kerger BD. Chromium(VI) at plausible drinking water concentrations is not genotoxic in the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus or liver UDS assays. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1996; 28:60–63.

Paustenbach DJ, Hayes S, Brien B, Dodge DG, Kerger BD. Observation of steady state in blood and urine following human ingestion of hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1996; 49:453–461.

Kerger BD, Corbett GE, El-Sururi S, Reitz R. Validating dermal exposure assessment techniques for dioxin using body burden data and pharmacokinetic modeling. Organohalogen Compounds 1995; 25:137–141.

Paustenbach D, Karch N, Golden R, Kerger BD, Leung H-W. The relative susceptibility of animals and humans to the carcinogenic hazard posed by exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD: An analysis of standard and alternative dosimetric measures. Organohalogen Compounds 1995; 26:31-34.

Paustenbach DJ, Kerger BD. What’s new with dioxin? SONREEL NEWS 25(5):8-9. Section on Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law of the American Bar Association, 1994 Available from the American Bar Association.

Kerger BD, Roberts SM, Harbison RD, James RC. Antagonism of bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity by phentolamine: role of hypothermia. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1989; 97:360–369.

Kerger BD Investigations of the adrenergic potentiation of halogenated hydrocarbon induced hepatotoxicity. (Full Dissertation), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Library, Little Rock, AR, 1988.

Kerger BD, Mancuso CA, Nichols PD, White DC, Langworthy T, Sittig M, Schlesner H, Hirsch P. The budding bacteria pirellula and planctomyces, with atypical 16S rRNA and absence of peptidoglycan, show eubacterial phospholipids and uniquely high proportions of long chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids in the lipopolysaccharide lipid A. Archives of Microbiology 1988; 149:255–260.

Kerger BD, Gandy J, Hinson JA, Roberts SM, Harbison RD, James RC. Antagonism of bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity by phentolamine: evidence for a metabolism-independent intervention. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1988; 95:24–31.

Kerger BD, Gandy J, Bucci TJ, Roberts SM, Harbison RD, James RC. Antagonism of Bromobenzene-Induced Hepatotoxicity by the Alpha Adrenergic Blocking Agents, Phentolamine and Idazoxan. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1988; 95:12–23.

Kerger BD, James RC, Roberts SM. An assay for phentolamine using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Analytical Biochemistry 1988; 170:145–151.

Kerger BD, Roberts SM, James RC. Comparison of mouse and human liver microsomal metabolism of bromobenzene and chlorobenzene to 2- and 4-halophenols. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 1988; 16(5):672.

Kerger BD, Nichols PD, Sand W, Bock E, White DC. Association of acid producing thiobacilli with the degradation of concrete: Analysis by 'signature' fatty acids from the polar lipids and lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 1987; 2:63–69.

Kerger BD, Nichols PD, Antworth CP, Sand W, Bock E, Cox JC, Langworthy TA, White DC. Signature fatty acids from the polar lipids of the acid producing thiobacilli spp.: Methoxy, cyclopropyl, alphahydroxy-cyclopropyl and branched and normal monoenoic fatty Acids. FEMS Microbial Ecology 1986; 38:67–77.

Smith GA, Nickels JS, Kerger BD, Davis JD, Collins SP, Wilson JT, McNabb JF, White DC. quantitative characterization of microbial biomass and community structure in sub-surface material: A unique prokaryotic consortium responsive to organic contamination. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1986; 32:104–111.

Book Chapters

Kerger BD, Gerthoux PM, Mocarelli P. 1976 Trichlorophenol Reactor Explosion at Seveso, Italy. In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. Nriagu, JO (ed), Volume 4, pp. 125–136, Burlington: Elsevier, 2011.

Kerger BD, Finley BL Paustenbach DJ. Hexavalent chromium in groundwater: The importance of chemistry in quantifying exposure, dose, and risks. In: Health Risk Assessment, 2nd Edition. Paustenbach DJ (ed), John Wiley and Sons; Chapter 7, pp. 445–474, 2002.

Scientific Society Research Presentations

Beckerman, BS, Chang, ET, Mezei, G, Kerger, BD. Does longevity play an etiological role in pleural mesothelioma? Toxicological Sciences 2016; 150(1): 464. Abstract #2979.

Scott P, Bernal AJ, Cheng T, DeGandiaga E, Kerger BD. Dose-response relationships for DNA-adducts formed by Mono-, Di- and Tri-Chlorobiphenyls: Do common indoor and outdoor PCB vapor exposures pose a significant cancer risk? Toxicological Sciences 2015; 142:115. Abstract #539. 

Kerger BD, Bernal AJ, Scott P. Tissue dose modeling and bronchiolar fibrosis risk for inhalation of highly water soluble irritant gases: Comparison of acetaldehyde, acrolein, and diacetyl. Toxicological Sciences 2015; 142:158. Abstract #737.

Bernal AJ, Huntley-Fenner G, Kerger BD. Risk communication and perceptions for highly beneficial medical devices and pharmaceuticals with limited scientific evidence for adverse consequences. Toxicological Sciences 2015; 142:239. Abstract #1127

Unice K, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Finley BL Tvermoes BE. A refined Co biokinetic model based on human data. Toxicological Sciences 2014; 138:16. Abstract #77.

Kerger BD, Ronk CJ, Glynn ME, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Age-related trends in US pleural mesothelioma and soft tissue sarcoma rates: Evidence for a longevity effect. Toxicological Sciences 2014; 138:57–58. Abstract #225.

Scott PK, Abelman A, Avens HJ, Hoyt S, Kerger BD. Headspace and small chamber studies of airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with selected food flavoring mixtures. Toxicological Sciences 2014; 138:412. Abstract #1575.

Thuett KS, Kerger BD, Finley BL Paustenbach DJ. Evaluation of four alpha-diketones for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) activation in human embryonic kidney cells. Toxicological Sciences 2014; 138:419. Abstract #1610.

Bolstad HM, Unice KM, Maskrey JM, Hollins DM, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. Airborne diacetyl from cooking and consumption of microwave popcorn: Estimation of consumer exposure with a two-zone near-field/far-field model. Toxicological Sciences 2013; 132(1):272. Abstract #1268.

Kerger BD, Gerads R, Gurleyuk H, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Method for measuring protein-bound and free ionic cobalt(II) in human serum using size exclusion liquid chromatography with inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy detection. Toxicological Sciences 2013; 132(1):250. Abstract #1168.

Kerger BD, Richter RO, Hoyt S, Fedoruk MJ. Total aromatic content in petroleum solvents modifies headspace benzene vapor concentrations: Implications for exposure assessments. Toxicological Sciences 2012; 126(1):316. Abstract #1467 .

Knutsen JS, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Human PBPK modeling of benzene inhalation based on Chinese worker urinary metabolite data: Comparison of human and mouse metabolism. Toxicological Sciences 2012; 126(1):407. Abstract #1893.

Britt JK, Halmes NC, Kerger BD, James RC. Evidence-based analysis defining a formaldehyde vapor concentration NOEL for irritant responses in humans. Toxicological Sciences 2011; 120:417. Abstract #1947.

Fehling K, Copeland T, Otani J, Kerger BD. Development of surrogate reference concentrations for volatile organic compounds commonly encountered at hazardous waste sites. Toxicological Sciences 2011; 120:107–108. Abstract #502.

Kerger BD, Scott PK, Pavuk M, Gough M, Paustenbach DJ. Reverse causation of dioxin dose-response trends for risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 among Operation Ranch Hand Vietnam veterans. Toxicological Sciences 2011; 120:484. Abstract #2255.

James RC, Kerger BD, Garabrant DH. Lung cancer risks from asbestos exposure, asbestosis, and other fibrotic lung diseases: Case examples of distinguishing factors for disease causation analysis. Toxicological Sciences 2010; 114:26. Abstract #122.

Kerger BD, Copeland TL, DeCaprio A. Tenuous dose-response correlations for common disease states: Case study of cholesterol and perfluorooctanoate/sulfonate (PFOA/PFOS) in the C8 Health Project. Toxicological Sciences 2010; 114:49. Abstract #227.

Kerger BD, Britt J, Barfield L, James RC. Mesothelioma diagnosis: should genetic screening be used to evaluate primary site and plausibility of asbestos causation? Toxicological Sciences 2009; 108:345. Abstract #1662.

Knutsen JS, Kerger BD, Kuykendall JR, Paustenbach DJ. PBPK modeling of benzene in bone marrow of humans with varied workplace exposure patterns and CYP2E1 activity. Toxicological Sciences 2009; 108:263. Abstract #1265.

Copeland TL, Black P, Duffy P, DeCaprio AP, O’Hehir DJ, Kerger BD. Comparison of congener-specific and Aroclor quantitation methods for assuring remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated dibenzofurans at a former wastewater treatment plant. Toxicological Sciences 2008; 102(1):370. Abstract #1798.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD, Israel L, Hoyt SD, Britt J, James RC. Pilot study of vapor reaction products from mixing diacetyl and chlorine bleach. Toxicological Sciences 2008; 102(1):302. Abstract #1476.

James RC, Kerger BD, Roberts SM, Payer AF, O’Hehir DJ, DeCaprio AP. Higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and ratios in skin lipids relative to adjacent subcutaneous adipose lipids. Toxicological Sciences 2008; 102(1):302. Abstract #1475.

Kerger BD, Butler WJ, Paustenbach DJ, Zhang JD, Li SK. Cancer mortality in Chinese populations surrounding an alloy plant with chromium smelting operations (1960–1978). Toxicological Sciences 2008; 102(1):301–302. Abstract #1472.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD, Bronstein R, Richter RO. Airborne dust exposure assessment for automotive body shop work involving resin fillers and abrasives. Toxicological Sciences 2007; 96(1):147. Abstract #716.

Kerger BD, Roberts M, Zellmer G, Cramer C, Carman E. Airborne asbestos measurements and risk assessment for an athletic field with transite board debris from barracks demolition. Toxicological Sciences 2007; 96(1):147–148. Abstract #718.

Richter RO, Kerger BD, Hoyt S, Fedoruk MJ. Influence of hydrocarbon composition on benzene vapor emissions in mixed products. Proceedings, International Society for Exposure Analysis 17th Annual Meeting, 2007.

Roberts M, Meschke M, Woessner C, Kerger BD. Airborne asbestos measurements and risk assessment for agricultural activities on an easement with insulation debris from a petroleum pipeline. Toxicological Sciences 2007; 96(1):147. Abstract #717.

Gough, M, Kerger BD, Leung HW, Scott P, Harris M, Paustenbach DJ. Dioxin and diabetes: Does the current weight of evidence demonstrate a relationship? Toxicological Sciences 2006; 90(1):314. Abstract #1536.

Kerger BD, James RC. Do the epidermal tissues of humans provide a substantial Sink and Excretion Pathway for More Persistent Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins? Toxicological Sciences 2006; 90(1):20. Abstract #99.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Scott P, Paustenbach DJ. An integrated toxicokinetic model for estimating childhood body burdens of dioxins based on various studies. Toxicological Sciences 2006; 90(1):115. Abstract #561.

Richter RO, Kerger BD, Leung HW, Paustenbach DJ. Implications for age-dependent half lives of dioxins on assessment of breast milk dose and body burden. Toxicological Sciences 2006; 90(1):117. Abstract #570.

Fedoruk MJ, Smalstig T, Tran J, Shum M, Richter RO, Bronstein R, Kerger BD. Diesel-related benzene exposures during refueling operations at two grocery distribution centers. Toxicological Sciences 2005; 84(S-1):83, Abstract #412.

Fedoruk MJ, Smalstig T, Richter RO, Bronstein R, Kerger BD. Modeling residential exposure to xylenes and ethylbenzene from window sealant application based on laboratory mass flux measurements. International Society for Exposure Analysis 15th Annual Meeting, Proceedings Abstract Book, p. 173, 2005.

Kerger BD, Fedoruk MJ. Screening method for quantifying dermal adherence of paint films. International Society for Exposure Analysis 15th Annual Meeting, Proceedings Abstract Book, p. 172, 2005.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Scott PK. An age-dependent half-life model for estimating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Toxicological Sciences 2005; 84(S-1):53. Abstract #257.

Kerger BD, Leung HW, Paustenbach DJ, Needham L, Patterson D, Gerthoux PM, Mocarelli P. Age- and concentration-dependent elimination half life of TCDD in Seveso children. Dioxin 2005 Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, presentation # 1581, October 2005.

Leung H-W, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Masuda Y. Age- and concentration-dependent half life of polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Yusho and Yucheng patients. Dioxin 2005 Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, presentation #1662, October 2005.

Paustenbach DJ, Fehling K, Harris M, Scott P, Kerger BD. Identifying soil clean-up criteria for dioxins in residential soils: How has 20 years of research and risk assessment experience impacted the analysis? Dioxin 2005 Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, presentation # 1922, October, 2005.

Fedoruk MJ, Bronstein R, Kerger BD. Volatile organic compound exposure assessment for government inspectors at gas stations. Toxicological Sciences 2004; 78(1-S):106. Abstract#516.

Kerger BD, Bronstein R, Fedoruk MJ. Exposure assessment of volatile organic compounds and metals for government inspectors at auto body repair facilities. Toxicological Sciences 2004; 78(1-S):106-107. Abstract #517.

Paustenbach DJ, Leung HW, Scott P, Kerger BD. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half-lives. Presented at Dioxin 2004 Annual Meeting in Berlin, Germany, October, 2004.

Fedoruk MJ Kerger BD. Pitfalls of broad-based chemical screening of fire responders in California: A false alarm on cyanazine herbicide. Toxicological Sciences 2003; 72(S-1):241. Abstract #1172.

Fedoruk MJ, Shum M, Kerger BD. Mold remediation: Medical toxicological considerations. Presented at the ACGIH National Meeting, Mold Remediation, The National Quest for Uniformity Symposium, November 3–5, 2003, Orlando, FL. Proceedings documents available through ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH.

Kerger BD, Fedoruk MJ, Bronstein RF. Perchloroethylene exposure assessment for government inspectors at dry-cleaning facilities. Toxicological Sciences 2003; 72(S-1):183. Abstract #891.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD. Assessment of toluene and ethyl acetate exposures from wearing a costume mask bonded with contact cement. Toxicological Sciences 2002; 66(1-S):346. Abstract #1693

Kerger BD, Fedoruk MJ. Ammonia exposure and dose-response assessment for household cleaning uses. Toxicological Sciences 2002; 66(1-S):345-6. Abstract #1692.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD. Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside vehicles. Toxicological Sciences 2001; 60(1-S):20. Abstract #97.

Kerger BD, Fedoruk MJ. Benzene Exposure assessment for use of a petroleum naphtha metal parts cleaner. The Toxicologist – Toxicological Science Supplement 2000; 54(1):21.

Lowney L, Deubner D, Hays SM, Chapman P, Kerger BD, Shields W, Paustenbach DJ. Biomonitoring for beryllium: Experience with a U.S. work force. The Toxicologist – Toxicological Sciences Supplement 2000; 54(1):310.

Wilson ND, Craven VA, Paustenbach DJ, Hays SM, Finley BL, Kerger BD. Assessing risks to nursing infants whose mothers ingested fish containing persistent organic pollutants (POPs): Inadequacy of USEPA default methods and directions for the future. Proceedings, International Society for Exposure Analysis Annual Meeting, October 2000.

Fedoruk MJ, Kerger BD. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in a grade school following a fluorescent light ballast failure. The Toxicologist 1999; 48(1-5):279.

Kerger BD, Corbett GE, Copeland TL. Risk communication regarding dioxin exposures to infants from mother’s milk: Key uncertainties relating to steady state modeling assumptions. The Toxicologist 1999; 48(1-5):399.

Kerger BD, Schmidt CE, Flahive TP, Corbett GE, Richter RO, Paustenbach DJ. Measurements of airborne concentrations of halogenated methanes due to showering and bathing. Toxicological Sciences 1998; 42(1-S):40.

Paustenbach DJ, Richter RO, Suder D, Corbett GE, Flahive TP, Kerger BD. Comparison of measured and model-estimated indoor concentrations of airborne chloroform from use of residential tap water. Toxicological Sciences 1998; 42(1-S):40.

Richter RO, Kerger BD, Corbett GE. Effects on risk: Sensitivity analysis of parameters used for determining risk of hazardous waste combustion facilities. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Phoenix, AZ, December 1998.

Richter RO, Suder D, Kerger BD. Use of odor threshold data and shower air modeling to determine allowable limits of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water. Toxicological Sciences 1998; 42(1-S):251.

Corbett GE, Kerger BD, Camoirano A, Bagnasco M, Benicelli C, De Flora S. Detoxification thresholds for ingestion and inhalation exposures to hexavalent chromium in humans based on measured reducing capacities of organs, cell populations, and body fluids. The Toxicologist 1997; 36(1):336–337. Abstract Issue of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology.

Dodge DG, Kerger BD, Corbett GE, Richter RO. Empirical estimation of plausible upper bound product exposures for litigation. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, 1997.

Dodge DG, Kerger BD, Corbett GE, Schmidt C, Richter RO. Characterization of product-specific exposure potential from occupational use of sealants. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the International Society for Exposure Analysis, 1997.

Finley BL, Kerger BD, Katona MW, Gargas ML, Corbett GE, Paustenbach DJ. Human ingestion of chromium (VI) in drinking water: Pharmacokinrtics following repeated exposure. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, p. 121, 1997.

Ghirelli RP, Amini H, Kerger BD, Hillman A, Richter RO. MTBE water contamination: Key considerations for remediation, risk assessment, and risk management. Pacific Conference on Chemistry and Spectroscopy, American Chemical Society, Society for Applied Spectroscopy, Irvine, CA, October 21–25, 1997.

Kerger BD, Price PS. Use of probabilistic models to illustrate reasonable scientific certainty of dose and risk estimates in the courtroom. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, p. 50, 1997.

Kerger BD, Dodge DG, Richter RO. Key considerations for risk assessment and risk management of methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) regarding leaking underground fuel tanks. The Toxicologist 1997; 36(1):283. Abstract Issue of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology.

Kerger BD, Dagdigian JV, Paustenbach DJ. Inserting real science into mass toxic tort actions. ABA Tort and Insurance Practice Section, Toxic & Hazardous Substances and Environmental Law Committee Symposium entitled Desert Storm: Environmental Contamination, Litigation Strategies & Bankruptcy Considerations -- A Series of Round Table Discussions Featuring Judges, Corporate, Plaintiff, Insurance and Bankruptcy Attorneys and Experts, March 7, 1997. Available from the American Bar Association.

Kerger BD, Richter RO, Corbett GE. Scientific approaches to address personal injury claims involving rare cancers: Case studies involving pesticide exposures. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, 1997.

Langard S, Kerger BD, Corbett GE. A method for determining relative contribution to individual cancers from known human carcinogens: Case examples involving lung cancer. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, p. 111, 1997.

O’Flaherty EJ, Kerger BD, Corbett GE, Hayes S, Paustenbach DJ. Fitting a scaled physiologically-based model of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) kinetics to human plasma, red cell and urine concentration measurements. The Toxicologist 1997; 36(1):336. Abstract Issue of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology.

Paustenbach DJ, Dodge DG, Corbett GE, Hays SM, Brien BA, Kerger BD. Steady-state observations in blood and urine of human volunteers following ingestion of hexavalent chromium in drinking water. The Toxicologist 1997; 36(1):337. Abstract Issue of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology.

Richter RO, Kerger BD, Suder D. Key considerations for assessment of Chromium(VI) exposures and risks from cooling tower aerosols. The Toxicologist 1997; 36(1):336. Abstract Issue of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology.

Underwood PM, Dodge DG, Meyers S, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. Comparison of two sampling methods for ambient airborne Chromium(VI) in California: implications for risk assessment. The Toxicologist 1997; 36(1):281. Abstract Issue of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology.

Carlson-Lynch H, Corbett GE, El-Sururi SM, Kerger BD, Reitz R, Paustenbach DJ. Multipathway assessment of dioxin uptake and resulting body burden for selected occupational exposure scenarios. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):160. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Chute S, Kerger BD, Dodge DG, Corbett GE, Paustenbach DJ. Product testing to realistically assess exposure: A case study involving workers’ use of an anti-corrosive substance containing chromic acid. Presented at the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting, December 8–11, 1996.

Chute SM, Overman SK, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. The Cr(VI) reductive capacity of household beverages: Implications for risk assessment. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):7. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Clark JJJ, Corbett GE, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Dermal uptake of hexavalent chromium in human volunteers measures of systemic uptake from immersion in water at 22 ppm. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):14. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Corbett GE, Kerger BD, Camoirano A, Bagnasco M, Bennicelli C, De Flora S. Modeling of detoxification thresholds for ingestion and inhalation exposures to hexavalent chromium in humans based on measured reducing capacities of organs, cell populations, and body fluids. Presented at the 7th North American International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) Meeting, San Diego, CA, October 20–24, 1996.

Corbett GE, Kerger BD, Dodge DG, Paustenbach DJ. Studies providing empirical data on dose and biological mechanisms to address litigation and regulatory issues. Presented at the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting, December 8–11, 1996.

Corbett GE, O’Flaherty E, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Reduction kinetics of hexavalent chromium in human blood. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):15. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Dodge DG, Shurdut BA, El-Sururi S, Richter RO, Kerger BD. Indoor air modeling of chlorpyrifos and solvent emissions following broadcast application on carpeting. Presented at the 7th North American International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) Meeting, San Diego, CA, October 20–24, 1996.

Dodge DG, Corbett GE, Mirsalis J, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. An investigation of the potential in vivo genotoxicity of chromium (VI) in drinking water using the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus and liver UDS assays. Presented at the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting, December 8–11, 1996.

Dodge DG, Clark JJJ, Kerger BD, Richter RO, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Assessment of airborne hexavalent chromium in the home following use of contaminated tap water. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):117–118. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Finley BL, Kerger BD, Corbett GE, Paustenbach DJ. Pharmacokinetics of drinking water exposure to selected chromium (III and VI) compounds in human volunteers. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):14. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ, O’Flaherty E. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for ingestion of chromium (III and VI) in drinking water: Validation with human studies. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):251. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Kerger BD, Dodge DG, Corbett GE, Paustenbach DJ. Fostering EPA’s use of biologically-based models in risk assessment and regulation. Presented at the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting, December 8–11, 1996.

Kuykendall J, Overman SK, Kerger BD, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ. Testing for DNA-protein crosslinking after drinking water exposure to chromium (III and VI) in human volunteers. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):14. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Langard S, Kerger BD, Corbett GE. Cancer causation and assessment of relative contribution for known causes of human cancers: case examples involving hexavalent chromium. Presented at the 7th North American International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) Meeting, San Diego, CA, October 20–24, 1996.

Paustenbach DJ, Hayes S, Kerger BD, Finley B. An analysis of inter-individual variability in uptake and elimination of chromium from human volunteers. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):35. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Richter RO, Harrington N, Curry C, El-Sururi S, Prince P, Kerger BD. Comparison of risk estimates derived from standardized point estimates, traditional Monte Carlo analysis, and microexposure analysis for the domestic use of trichloroethylene impacted groundwater. The Toxicologist 1996; 30(1):115. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology

Chute S, Dodge DG, Richter R, Kerger BD. Filling data gaps for accurate exposure assessment of chromium(VI) compounds in drinking water: A case study on aerosols and reduction capacity in beverages. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, December 3–6, 1995.

Kerger BD, Finley BL Paustenbach DJ. Cost-benefit analysis of California Policy on cancer risk: A case study of chromium(VI). The Toxicologist 1995; 15(1):37. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Kerger BD, Corbett GE, El-Sururi S, Reitz R, Paustenbach D. Validating dermal exposure assessment techniques for dioxin using body burden data and pharmacokinetic modeling. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, December 3–6, 1995.

Kerger BD, Stabile I, Copeland T. Mass balance problems with the USEPA Model for estimating infant dioxin dose via breast milk. Proceedings, Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, p. 74, December 5–8, 1999.

Richter RO, Kerger BD, Cunningham J, Paustenbach DJ. Exposure modeling and validation studies for aerosols: A case study of dioxin exposure during roadside weed abatement with 2,4,5-T. The Toxicologist 1995; 15(1):62–63.

Walker LB, Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ. Integrating critical scientific data into regulatory exposure limits: A case study with hydrogen sulfide. The Toxicologist 1994; 14(1):213. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Copeland TL, Bono M, Kerger BD. The Use of health risk assessment in toxic tort litigation: A case study evaluating off-site impact of dioxin-contaminated soils. The Toxicologist 1993; 13(1):282. Abstract Issue of Fundamental & Applied Toxicology.

Kerger BD. Investigations of the adrenergic potentiation of halogenated hydrocarbon induced hepatotoxicity. Dissertation Abstract, University Microfilms International Dissertation Information Service, 1998.

Kerger BD, Teaf CM. Validating airborne exposure assessments for juries: Two case studies involving chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater. Proceedings, Society for Risk Analysis Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, December 1998.

Kerger BD. Antagonism of bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity by the alpha-adrenergic blocking agent, phentolamine. Proceedings, National Student Research Forum, Galveston, TX, 1987. Abstracts, page 4.

Kerger BD, Gandy J, Hinson JA, Roberts SM, Harbison RD, James RC. Antagonism of bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity by phentolamine: Evidence for a pharmacological intervention. The Pharmacologist 1987; 29(3):148.

Kerger BD, Roberts SM, James RC. Comparison of mouse and human liver microsomal metabolism of bromobenzene and chlorobenzene to 2- and 4-halophenols. Proceedings, Fall Meeting of the South Central Chapter of the Society of Toxicology, Little Rock, AR, 1987. Abstracts, page 1.

Kerger BD, Gandy J, James RC, Bucci TJ, Harbison RD. Antagonism of bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity by the alpha-adrenergic blocking agent, phentolamine. The Pharmacologist 1986; 28(3):180.

White DC, Nivens DE, Nichols PD, Kerger BD, Henson JM, Geesey GG, Clarke CK. Corrosion of steels induced by aerobic bacteria and their exocellular polymers. Proceedings, International Conference on Biodeterioration, Argentina/USA, April 1985.

White DC, Nivens NE, Nichols PD, Mikell AT, Jr., Kerger BD, Henson JM, Geesey GG, Clarke CK. Role of aerobic bacteria and their extracellular polymers in the facilitation of corrosion: Use of Fourier transforming infrared spectroscopy and signature phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Proceedings, International Conference on Biologically Induced Corrosion, Gaithersburg, MD, June 1985.

Presentations

The Toxicology of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Florida State University Course: Introduction to Toxicology, Fall 1990.

Consulting Toxicology: Current Issues. Seminar to faculty/graduate students at University of California, Irvine Inhalation Toxicology Laboratories, March 1992.

Current Problems and Future Trends for Improving Health Risk Assessment. Seminar to faculty and graduate students at the University of California, Irvine Civil Engineering Department, May 1992.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Update on Hypotheses and Current Evidence. Lecture for American Industrial Hygienists Association, Northern California Section, April 1996.

Arsenic and Chromium: Toxicology and Risk Assessment Issues. Lecture for Continuing Engineering Education program at California State University, Long Beach, CA, April 1996.

Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) and Methyl-tert Butyl Ether (MTBE) Toxicity Concerns at Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Seminar on The New Era in Remediation of Petroleum Contamination presented by McLaren/Hart, Inc, July 1996.

Workplace-Related Skin Diseases and Exposure Assessment. Invited participant for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) seminar. Rockville, MD, September 25–26, 1996.

Toxicology Expert in Panel Discussions for Desert Storm: Environmental Contamination, Litigation Strategies & Bankruptcy Considerations -- A Series of Round Table Discussions Featuring Judges, Corporate, Plaintiff, Insurance and Bankruptcy Attorneys and Experts. Annual Spring Meeting of the American Bar Association Tort and Insurance Practice Section, Toxic and Hazardous Substances and Environmental Law Committee, Chandler, AZ, March 7, 1997.

Televised Expert Panel Presentation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Epidemiology, Childhood Lead Poisoning: Research, Practice and Prevention”. Dr. Kerger Presented on the topics of maternal transmission of Lead to infants via in utero exposure and via breast milk transfer. Broadcast from WFSU at Florida State University, September 17, 1999.

Invited Speaker, The International Society for Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Seminar: EPA’s Characterization of Dioxin Risks: Do Background Dioxin Exposures Pose a Human Health Threat?”, October 6, 2000, Washington, D.C.

External Peer Reviewer to USEPA in the Peer Review Workshop on Chapter 9: Toxicity Equivalency Factors (TEF) for Dioxin and Related Compounds, and the Revised Integrated Summary and Risk Characterization Document, July 24, 2000.

Human Toxicokinetics of Dioxins and PCBs: New Perspectives on Risks and Public Health Implications Now and For Future Generations. Graduate Student Seminar at the University of California-Irvine, March 14, 2008.

Prior Experience

Senior Principal Health Scientist, Cardno ChemRisk, LLC 2012–2014

Independent Toxicology Consultant, Health Science Resource Integration, Inc., 1997–2012

Managing Principal Health Scientist, McLaren-Hart, Inc. ChemRisk Division, 1992–1997

Senior Toxicologist, Toxicological Evaluations, Research and Risk Assessment, 1988–1992

Professional Affiliations

Society of Toxicology—SOT

Society for Risk Analysis—SRA 

International Society for Exposure Science

Project Experience

Chemical Product Risk Assessment

Auto body shop product exposure characterization for litigation. Assisted in design and data analysis of field studies examining particulate exposures from use of auto body filler and abrasive products by experienced workers in auto repair shops, including evaluation of total and respirable particulates and subcomponents including talc, silica, and metal oxides. SEM studies of suspended dusts were also included. The data analysis showed a relatively low fraction of respirable dust generated by grinding of body fillers, and suspended dusts were mainly comprised of larger resin debris rather than respirable talc, silica, or metal oxides. These field studies were presented at the Society of Toxicology annual meeting.

Sealant product exposure characterization for litigation. Managed the process of collecting key information and conducting innovative emissions testing regarding a sealant product that was claimed to cause excessive exposure to hexavalent chromium and other materials. Reviewed all of the product information on use and chemical contents, and performed interviews, facility document reviews, and literature searches to obtain specific information on product usage at the aerospace facility at issue. Developed a flux chamber methodology in conjunction with external experts to characterize the magnitude and timing of emissions of chromium and potentially hazardous solvents from the sealant matrix during mixing, application, and curing. Used the flux chamber measurements to develop specific exposure concentration estimates for worker exposures under different, known conditions of use. Personally presented testimony and exhibits which assisted in educating the jury about chromium toxicology and the findings of the analyses.

Coating product exposure characterization for litigation. Developed a series of bench-testing protocols to examine the chemical contents and exposure characteristics of chromate-containing products used to coat metals in the aerospace industry. The testing protocols characterized the low potential of the product to breakdown or be released in vapor or aerosol form during normal product usage. Also determined the plausible dermal loading rate for persons using the product and/or handling treated metals. Developed a multipathway, quantitative exposure analysis and risk assessment for 22 test plaintiffs using the testing information and workplace exposure data.

Pesticide product dioxin exposure assessment for litigation. Researched the available scientific literature to develop plausible, refined estimates of dioxin uptake resulting from specific work activities. Lead the design and conducted experiments to quantitate aerosol blowback exposure for a roadside weed abatement operator. Developed dermal uptake models which were integrated with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models for total dioxin uptake that allowed estimation of the change in the worker's tissue concentrations of dioxin over time. Compared quantitative estimates of daily and total dioxin dose to dietary uptake, and made similar comparisons for contributions to the overall body burden from occupational versus dietary sources of dioxin.

Pentachlorophenol/dioxin research and risk assessment for litigation. Managed a detailed research project which delineated the state of scientific knowledge from 1950 to present regarding the known environmental fate and transport characteristics of pentachlorophenol products. Prepared a detailed chronology and briefing notebook to assist the attorneys and clients in defending product liability and failure-to-warn claims regarding knowledge of pentachlorophenol impacts to soils and groundwater. Also provided a summary and analysis of site-characterization data and a screening level risk assessment for two California facilities seeking cost recovery on these issues. Personally gave a deposition on these issues in one case where the determination of the timing of the spill helped to resolve the cost recovery and other liability issues.

Metals bioavailability research for litigation. Managed the research of several issues pertaining to the production of a vitrified aggregate material from soils originally contaminated with creosote. Analyzed numerous technical expert reports and data pertaining to the processing of soils to create aggregates that could be recycled as construction materials and/or for land filling purposes. Provided research materials on metals accumulation and the fate/transport and risk assessment considerations of potential importance for determining safe uses of the aggregate. 

Pesticide toxicology research for litigation. Provided assistance in researching and developing strategies regarding opposing expert claims that certain pesticides cause 1) a rare form of cutaneous lymphoma; 2) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a chronic heavy cigarette smoker, and 3) aplastic anemia. Researched the available literature and drafted detailed reports analyzing the known mechanisms (if any) for chemical causation of these diseases and the validity of expert reports proposing hypothetical mechanisms and causal associations for the pesticides at issue. 

Drug toxicology research for litigation. Reviewed opposing expert claims that a 42-year old man had experienced a fatal heart attack due to chronic occupational exposure to methylene chloride; he died approximately one year after leaving that company. Supervised an analysis of the man's medical records and chemical exposure history, and researched the literature concerning known and suspected causes of heart disease. Verbal reports were given to the defense attorneys regarding the key scientific issues. The medical records revealed that the plaintiff had been a heavy smoker and drinker, and had experienced a series of long-term pulmonary infections prior to death. Review of the medical records indicated that the man had taken a heart medication and an antibiotic agent which together cause allergic myocarditis and asthmatic-type bronchoconstriction. The plaintiff's rapidly degrading condition was likely attributable to continued intake of the antibiotic which promoted these effects independent of his limited methylene chloride exposure in the past. 

Hydrocarbon solvent risk assessment for litigation. Reviewed opposing expert claims that a contractor who applied solvent to remove asbestos floor tile caused building contamination (kerosene and odorous chemicals) that resulted in long-term impacts on the performance and health of employees in the office building. Supervised the analysis of all the exposure information, an industrial hygiene audit of the building, and a review of historical events. This information was assimilated into a temporal pattern analysis of the exposures and health effects, and concurrent analysis of modeled indoor air chemical concentrations for the chemicals at issue. Prepared a report summarizing these findings and related information that was reviewed by the testifying physician/toxicologist in preparation for testimony. The analysis supported the viewpoint that the building management took responsible and appropriate actions and that the abatement contractor may have created a temporary nuisance, but no long-term problems. 

Product safety assessment. Planned and implemented an expedited sampling and analysis plan to determine potential human or environmental risks associated with continued use of a proprietary polymeric binder material used for certain race track surfaces. Drafted a report summarizing the analytical findings, the toxicological information and regulatory compliance issues, and including our recommendations concerning prudent resolution of potential risks to human health and the environmental resulting from continued use of the product. 

Environmental Risk Assessment 

Asbestos exposure/risk characterization for regulatory agencies. Assisted in design and data analysis of two separate field studies examining the airborne asbestos exposure potential for human activities (agricultural, recreational, maintenance) disturbing residual debris from asbestos-containing materials in soils. The exposure/risk calculations were reported to local regulatory agencies in support of plans for site closure based on limited exposure potential/health risk. These field studies were presented at the Society of Toxicology annual meeting. In this and other projects, weight of evidence reviews of the epidemiological and toxicological studies on asbestos fail to demonstrate health risks in the absence of distinctly elevated exposures to longer asbestos fibers and/or amphiboles that exhibit much higher toxic potency than the more commonly used short-fiber chrysotile. 

Chromium exposure/risk assessment for litigation. Managed the process of researching the available literature and developing key topic briefing notebooks regarding hexavalent chromium toxicology. Developed a detailed multipathway exposure and risk assessment to estimate the retrospective exposure history of 10 test plaintiffs with alleged exposure to hexavalent chromium in groundwater. ChemRisk designed and conducted a series of bench scale testing, field studies, animal genotoxicity studies, and human pharmacokinetic and genotoxicity studies to examine the fate and toxic potential of hexavalent chromium at low part per million levels in drinking water. Also investigated desert climate effects on exposure parameters, coordinated research with national and international experts on chromium toxicology, conducted collaborative research and interviews with epidemiologists examining chromium exposed populations in China and Mexico, and developed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models examining the fate of hexavalent chromium in the human body. The research resulted in more than 20 scientific meeting presentations and 14 manuscripts regarding the scientific issues of hexavalent chromium. 

Chloroform/H2S/dioxin risk assessment and research for litigation. Supervised the research assistance on multiple scientific issues in a major litigation in Washington State relating to airborne chemical emissions from a wastewater treatment facility. Analyzed more than thirty expert reports and datasets provided by the plaintiffs' experts with summaries and rebuttals/critiques provided for review by defense experts. Created a Dose Comparison Study to characterize the environmental fate of 38 chemicals allegedly at issue and to evaluate the potential public health concerns relating to those feasibly emitted from the facility. The study demonstrated that the maximum exposures at issue were insufficient to cause alleged health effects. Several notebooks of briefing materials (scientific literature and interpretive/tutorial analyses) concerning the chemicals and diseases allegedly at issue were provided to assist the attorneys and to optimize the preparation of defense experts. The chemicals included chlorinated dioxins and furans, chloroform, methylene chloride and other chlorinated compounds, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans, mustard gas, oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, nitrosamines, and sulfuric acid mist or fog. Key health claims at issue included cancer, lung injury and susceptibility to infections. 

Risk assessment research for CERCLA cost recovery litigation. Managed a comprehensive summary and critique of remedial investigation, risk assessment, and feasibility study documents prepared for an extensively investigated CERCLA site in California. Examined the strengths and weaknesses of the reported findings and conclusions to assist in demonstrating a de minimis contributor role for a pesticide product supplier involved in a civil suit for cost recovery. Briefing documents, figures and exhibits were created to summarize the scientific conclusions and our critique of the environmental fate and transport and chemical toxicology issues most pertinent to our client's potential responsibilities. 

Research and risk assessment for a refinery litigation. Managed a detailed analysis of several topics concerning chemical emissions and risks from a refinery in California. Topics included analysis of Air Toxics Inventory Reports and Risks Assessments created according to AB2588 guidance, and detailed research of aerosol, particulate and gaseous emissions of a variety of chemicals including predominantly hydrocarbons, metals and sulfur compounds. Past chemical emissions were linked to refinery records to formulate a retrospective assessment of exposures for nearby residents, including in excess of 400 plaintiffs. Briefing documents were created for key issues including aerosol transport and exposure characteristics, and updated toxicological data on chemicals of interest. 

Chemical weapons incinerator risk assessment for litigation. Managed the process of information collection and quantitative analysis of a claim filed by environmental groups in Utah and Oregon regarding a RCRA-permitted incinerator for destruction of chemical weapons at a military depot. Personally provided expert testimony regarding injunctions filed in state and federal courts to stop trial burn operations at the facility, and an appeal to the state permitting board to have the operating permit revoked. 

Risk assessment of wood treatment chemicals for litigation. Managed the research of contaminant migration and potential human health risks to community members in relation to a former wood treatment facility contaminated with creosote, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, and dioxin compounds. Researched the critical factors in determining whether alleged chemical releases could have adversely affected residents, provided critical analysis of preliminary conclusions reached by regulatory agencies and opposing experts, and developed an exposure assessment to examine site-related and other chemical exposures and risks relevant to the community at issue. 

CERCLA Risk Assessment. Author and strategist in developing a state-of-the-art risk assessment evaluation for a major Superfund site in southern California. The analysis provided a Monte Carlo-Based Analysis of key parameters concerning multipathway community exposures to chlorinated solvents (e.g., chloroform and TCE) and nonvolatile chemicals (e.g., nitrate, sulfates, metals) present in a groundwater plume emanating from a former waste disposal site. The analysis also provided the range of plausible health risks which were calculated based on three scenarios with varied assumptions with respect to continued remediation/containment or failure of current remedial systems. The report was the first Monte Carlo-based risk assessment accepted by Region IX USEPA; it was used in the final Record of Decision regarding the CERCLA Site. 

Human health and ecological risk assessment at a port facility. Project manager in the planning and development of the risk assessment portion of a remedial action plan for incorporation into an environmental impact report for a metal recycling facility located in a Port District area in Southern California. Assessed potential exposures to on-site workers, nearby residents, and marine life related to heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Developed an innovative risk-based sampling approach to derive data in support of using site-specific leaching characteristics with regard to the transport of soil contaminants into groundwater and to an adjacent marine habitat. The risk assessment supported final clean-up criteria approved by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. 

Human health risk assessment of former municipal landfill. Project manager for planning, developing and negotiating a human health risk assessment regarding contamination of a former landfill property with proposed future development into a retail mall. Assessed potential exposures to volatile organic chemicals, paint and petroleum wastes for on-site workers and nearby residents. Also evaluated the potential risks associated with a hypothetical uncontrolled residential development of the landfill and for the proposed future commercial use with Title 23 cap, gas collection systems, and building/parking lot structures in place. The detailed work plan of the risk assessment was approved by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. 

Regulatory Compliance 

Regulatory compliance documentation/environmental assessment for new drugs. Supervised the research of scientific literature and a local regulatory requirement survey relevant to the environmental assessment protocols for an FDA new drug application. The toxicology and environmental fate and chemistry information for a selected cytotoxic antineoplastic drug was summarized for use in hazard communication, medical monitoring program refinement, and a detailed regulatory compliance audit encompassing environmental and worker safety regulations. Created a document to summarize the findings and provide recommendations and precautions regarding enhancement of safety programs applicable to Research and Development uses and a limited production campaign involving this antineoplastic drug. 

Regulatory policy scientific critique documents. Reviewed a hazard communication document released by a State Health Department regarding hydrogen sulfide toxicity, finding several incorrect and unsupported statements and interpretations. Supervised research and documentation to support critical comments for the State Health Department to consider in revising the hazard communication, including a review of the scientific literature on toxicological effects and mechanism of action, a review of current regulatory policies on hydrogen sulfide throughout the world, and specific recommendations for revision. An addendum to this report was subsequently researched and drafted in response to a revised hazard communication released 6 months later. The client utilized both documents to provide a more rational decision-making process during regulatory negotiations with the State. 

Worker safety program development and hazard communication. Researched the scientific and medical literature regarding a cytotoxic virustatic drug proposed for use at a medical device manufacturing facility. Supervised production of a resource document which reviewed the relevant scientific literature and facility-specific process and hygienic procedures and provided recommendations and precautions regarding Research and Development uses and pilot production operations with this compound. This document was used for hazard communication during a McLaren/Hart training program for workers potentially exposed to this drug. 

Worker safety program development and hazard communication. Researched the scientific and medical literature regarding selected immunosuppressant and cytotoxic/antineoplastic drugs proposed for production and/or Research and Development use at an encapsulation facility. Supervised research of relevant scientific literature and the facility-specific process and hygienic procedures and provided preliminary recommendations and precautions regarding Research and Development uses and pilot production operations with these drugs. These recommendations were used for hazard communication during a McLaren/Hart training program for workers potentially exposed to this drug, and also for development of an appropriate medical monitoring program and hygiene/monitoring procedures for these drugs. 

Additional Information

Peer Reviewer

Environment International

British Journal of Cancer

Environmental Health Perspectives

Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health

Toxicological Sciences

Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Environmental Research

Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

Risk Analysis

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology

Journal of Children’s Health

Atmospheric Environment

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

Chemosphere

International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

International Journal of Soils, Sediments, and Water

Cancer Causes & Control

News & Events