Gary Kimmel
Gary L. Kimmel, Ph.D.
Senior Managing Scientist
Toxicology & Mechanistic Biology
  • Alexandria

Dr. Kimmel has over 35 years experience in reproductive and developmental toxicology, children’s environmental health, and risk assessment, working on projects at the state, national, and international level. From 1984 to 2004, Dr. Kimmel was a lead scientist in the National Center for Environmental Assessment at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dr. Kimmel’s laboratory research has focused on the causes and mechanisms of developmental toxicity, especially as it relates to prenatal effects of environmental exposures. His background in the area of developing and implementing Agency guidelines in risk assessment is extensive.

In the area of children’s risk assessment, Dr. Kimmel’s experience ranges from the initial development and revision of the Agency’s guidelines on developmental toxicity to participation in national and international committees and programs on children’s environmental health. In the general area of risk assessment, he co-chaired the U.S. EPA’s task force on developing a framework for human health risk assessment and was involved in various efforts to harmonize approaches for cancer and noncancer risk assessment. 

Dr. Kimmel was instrumental in the implementation of these guidelines through the development of risk assessment training programs and has considerable experience in applying risk assessment methodology. He chaired the U.S. EPA’s Risk Training Committee, oversaw the preparation of training materials, and served as a facilitator in risk assessment and reproductive and developmental toxicology for over 15 years. He has presented risk assessment courses and lectures in a wide variety of national and international venues including India, Hong Kong, Eastern Europe, and Canada. At EPA, Dr. Kimmel was directly involved in a variety of chemical-specific risk assessments, and served as chemical manager or team lead on several, including ethylene oxide, dioxin and disinfection by-products. 

Since his retirement from EPA in 2004, Dr. Kimmel has continued to work with various organizations on issues of reproductive and developmental toxicity and children’s health, including the World Health Organization. Prior to joining the U.S. EPA, Dr. Kimmel was a branch chief and developmental toxicologist with the National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 


  • Ph.D., Physiology, University of Cincinnati, 1972
  • M.S., Physiology, University of Cincinnati, 1969
  • A.B., Zoology, Miami University, 1967


Scialli et al. Teratology Society Public Affairs Committee. Position Paper: Maternal obesity and pregnancy. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2006; 76:73–77.

Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, Euling SY. Developmental and reproductive toxicity risk assessment for environmental agents. In: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, a Practical Approach. Hood RD (ed), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006.

Seed J, Carney EW, Corley RA, Crofton KM, DeSesso JM, Foster PMD, Kavlock R, Kimmel G, Klaunig J, Meek ME, Preston RJ, Slikker W Jr, Tabacova S, Williams GM, Wiltse J, Zoeller RT, Fenner-Crisp P, Patton DE. Overview: Using mode of action and life stage information to evaluate the human relevance of animal toxicity data. Crit Rev Toxicol 2005; 35:663–672.

Harrouk WA, Wheeler KE, Kimmel, GL, Hogan, K, Kimmel, CA. Effects of hyperthermia and boric acid on skeletal development in rat embryos. Birth Defects Research (Part B) 2005; 74:268–276.

Kimmel GL. An overview of children as a special population—Relevance to predictive biomarkers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005; 206:215–218.

Kimmel G, Harris S, Tassinari M, Knudsen T, Cunny H, Tyl R, Carlton B, Holson J, Slikker W. Commentary: Concern over decreased training in embryology and developmental/reproductive toxicology. Dual publication: Reprod Toxicol 18:623-624 and Birth Defects Research (Part B) 2005; 71:191-192.

Theobald, MH, Kimmel GL, Peterson RE. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of dioxins and related chemicals. pp. 329-431. In: Dioxins and Health, Second Edition. Schecter A, Gasiewicz TA (eds), John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2003.

Olshan AF, Kimmel G, Mattison D. Risk assessment. Workshop Report, advances in male mediated developmental toxicity. Robaire B, Hales BF (eds), Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 518:269–270.

Kimmel GL, Williams PL, Claggett TW, Kimmel CA. Response-surface analysis of exposure-duration relationships: The effects of hyperthermia on embryonic development of the rat in vitro. Toxicol Sci 2002; 69:391–399.

Dugyala RR, Claggett TW, Kimmel GL, Kimmel CA. HSP90a, HSP90b and P53 expression following in vitro hyperthermia exposure in gestation day 10 rat embryos. Toxicol Sci 2002; 69:183-190.

Kimmel GL, Vu V. Framework for human health risk assessment. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2001; 7:153–156.

Bogdanffy MS, Daston G, Faustman EM, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, Seed J, Vu V. Harmonization of cancer and noncancer risk assessment: Proceedings of a consensus-building workshop. Toxicol Sci 2001; 61:18–31.

Kimmel GL. Strategy for research on environmental risks to children. EPA/600/R-00/068. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, October 2000.

Lemasters GK, Perreault SD, Hales BF, Hatch M, Hirshfield AN, Hughes CL, Kimmel GL, Lamb JC, Pryor JL, Rubin C, Seed JG. Workshop to identify critical windows of exposure for children's health: Reproductive health in children and adolescents work group summary. Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108 Suppl 3:505–509.

Weller E, Long N, Smith A, Williams P, Ravi S, Gill J, Henessey R, Skornik W, Brain J, Kimmel C, Kimmel G. Dose-rate effects of ethylene oxide exposure on developmental toxicity. Toxicol Sci 1999; 50:259–270.

Breen, JG, Claggett TW, Kimmel GL, Kimmel CA. Heat shock during rat embryo development in vitro results in decreased mitosis and abundant cell death. Reprod Toxicol 1999; 13:31–39.

Kimmel G, Ohanian E, Vu V. Framework for human health risk assessment. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 1999; 5:997–1001.

Kimmel GL. Invited perspective: In vitro testing in developmental toxicity risk assessment. Teratology 1998; 58:25–26.

Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL. Principles of developmental toxicity risk assessment. pp. 667–693. In: Handbook of Developmental Toxicity. Hood RD (ed), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997.

Hanson JW, Harris C, Holmes LB, Juchau MR, Kimmel GL, Knudsen TB, Mirkes PE, Sadler TW, Schoenwolf GC, Sulik KK. A teratologist to extinction. Ad Hoc Committee On Grant Funding. Teratology 1996; 53:223–224.

Kimmel, GL. Exposure-duration relationships in risk assessment. Proceedings, Conference on Temportal Aspects of Risk Assessment for Noncancer Endpoints. Inhal Toxicol 1995; 7:873-880.

Kimmel, GL, Clegg ED, Crisp TM. Reproductive toxicity testing: A risk assessment perspective. In: Target Organ Toxicity: Reproductive Toxicity. Witorsch R (ed), Raven Press, NY, 1995.

Eskenazi B, Kimmel GL (eds). Summary of reproductive effects work group. Proceedings, Workshop on Perinatal Exposure to Dioxin-like Compounds, California Department of Health Services. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103 (Suppl 2):143–145.

Polifka JE, Rutledge JC, Kimmel GL, Dellarco V, Generoso WM. Exposure to ethylene oxide during the early zygotic period induces skeletal anomalies in mouse fetuses. Teratology 1996; 53:1–9.

Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL. Risk assessment for developmental toxicity. In: Target Organ Toxicity Series: Developmental Toxicology. Kimmel C, Buelke-Sam J (eds), Raven Press, 1994.

DeSesso JM, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, Holson JF, Harris SB, Hendrick AG. Letters to the Editor: On the subject of incorrect terminology. J Am College of Toxicol 1994; 13:321–325.

Peterson RE, Theobald HM, Kimmel GL. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of dioxins and related compounds: Cross species comparisons. CRC Crit Rev Toxicol 1993; 23:283–335.

Kimmel GL, Cuff JM, Kimmel CA, Heredia DJ, Tudor N, Silverman PM. Embryonic development in vitro following short-duration exposure to heat. Teratology 1993, 47:243–251.

Cuff, JM, Kimmel GL, Kimmel CA, Heredia DJ, Tudor N, Chen J. Relationship between abnormal somite development and axial skeletal defects in rats following heat exposure. Teratology 1993; 48:259–266.

Kimmel, CA, Cuff JM, Kimmel GL, Heredia DJ, Tudor N, Silverman PM, Chen J. Skeletal development following heat exposure in the rat. Teratology 1994; 47:229–242.

Goering PL, Fisher BR, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL. Stress proteins as biomarkers of toxicity. In: Use of Biomarkers in Assessing Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Pollutants. Travis CC (ed), Plenum Press, New York, 1993

Catalano PJ, Scharfstein DO, Ryan LM, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL. Statistical model for fetal death, fetal weight, and malformation in developmental toxicity studies. Teratology 1993; 47:281–290.

Smith, MK, George EL, Stober JA, Feng HA, Kimmel GL. Perinatal toxicity associated with nickel chloride exposure. Environ Res 1993; 61:200–211.

Kimmel GL. Overview of reproductive and developmental toxicology. Proceedings, Indo-US Symposium on Environmental and Genetic Factors on Pregnancy Outcome. Verma IC, Kimmel GL, Sonawane BR (eds), 1992.

Ryan LM, Catalano PJ, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL. Relationship between fetal weight and malformation in developmental toxicity studies. Teratology 1991; 44:215–223.

Kavlock RJ, Greene JA, Kimmel GL, Morrissey RE, Owens E, Rogers JM, Sadler TW, Stack HF, Waters MD, Welsch F. Activity profiles of developmental toxicity. Teratology 1991; 43:159–185.

Kimmel GL, Kochhar DM (eds). In vitro techniques in developmental toxicology: Use in defining mechanisms and risk parameters. CRC Press, 181 pp., 1990.

Kimmel GL. In vitro assays in developmental toxicology: Their potential application in risk assessment. In: In Vitro Techniques in Developmental Toxicology: Use In Defining Mechanisms and Risk Parameters. Kimmel GL, and Kochhar DM (eds), CRC Press, 1990.

Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, Francis EZ, Chitlik LD. An overview of the U.S. EPA’s proposed amendments to the guidelines for the health assessment of suspect developmental toxicants. J Am Coll Toxicol 1990; 9:39–47.

Marks TA, Kimmel GL, Staples RE. Influence of symmetrical polychlorinated biphenyl isomers on embryo and fetal development in mice, II. Comparison of 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3,3'4,4'-tetramethylbiphenyl. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1989; 13:681–693.

Sullivan-Jones P, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL. Prenatal reserpine exposure alters cardiovascular parameters in rat offspring. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1989; 13:652–661.

Buelke-Sam J, Ali SF, Kimmel GL, Slikker W Jr, Newport GD, Harmon JR. Postnatal function following prenatal reserpine exposure in rats: Neurobehavioral toxicity. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1989; 11:515–522.

Francis EZ, Kimmel GL. Proceedings, Workshop on One- vs. Two-Generation Reproductive Effects Studies. J Amer Coll Toxicol 1988; 7:911–925.

Kimmel GL, Kimmel CA, Francis EZ (eds). Proceedings, Consensus Workshop on the Evaluation of Maternal and Developmental Toxicity. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1987; 7:201–338.

Kimmel GL, Kimmel CA, Francis EZ. Implications of the consensus workshop on the evaluation of maternal and developmental toxicity. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1987; 7:329–338.

Kimmel, GL. Short-term developmental toxicity testing: Considerations in the validation process. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1987; 7:1–6.

Harmon, JR, Kimmel GL, Webb PJ, Delongchamp RR. Effect of prenatal reserpine exposure on development of the postnatal rat heart. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1987; 7:347–355.

Webb, PJ, Kimmel GL, Harmon JR, Sheehan DM, Delongchamp RR. Insulin stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in developing rat Heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1986; 236:334-338.

Harmon JR, Webb PJ, Kimmel GL, Delongchamp RR. Effect of prenatal imipramine exposure on development of the postnatal rat heart and brain. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1986; 6:173–184.

Harmon JR, Delongchamp RR, Kimmel GL, Webb PJ. Effect of prenatal propranolol exposure on development of the postnatal rat heart. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1986; 6:139–150.

Kimmel GL. In vitro tests in screening teratogens: Considerations to aid the validation process. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985; 163C:259–263.

Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, Frankos V. Interagency regulatory liaison group workshop on reproductive toxicity risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1985; 66:193–221.

Kwarta RF, Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, Slikker W Jr. Identification of the Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein (cRABP) within the embryonic mouse (CD-1) limb bud. Teratology 1985; 32:103–111.

Kimmel GL. In vitro tests in screening teratogens: Considerations to aid the validation process. In: Prevention of Physical and Mental Congenital Defects, Part C: Anomalies. Marois M, et al. (eds), Liss, New York, 1984.

Buelke-Sam, J, Kimmel GL, Webb PJ, Slikker W Jr, Newport GD, Nelson CJ, Kimmel CA. Postnatal toxicity following prenatal reserpine exposure: Effects of dose and dosing schedule. Fund Appl Toxicol 1984; 4:983–991.

Miska SP, Kimmel GL, Harmon JR, Webb PJ. Ontogeny of cardiac ornithine decarboxylase and its B-adrenergic responsiveness in the rat. J Pharmacol Exptl Therap 1984; 230:419–423.

Kimmel CA, Kimmel GL, White CG, Grafton TF, Young JF, Nelson CJ. Blood flow changes in the pregnant rat in response to caffeine and associated conceptal development. Fund Appl Toxicol 1984; 4:240–247

Smith, MK, Kimmel GL, Kochhar DM, Shepard TH, Spielberg SP, Wilson JG. A selection of candidate compounds for in vitro teratogenesis test validation. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1983; 3:461–480.

Kimmel, GL, Harmon JR, Slikker Jr W. Characterization of estrogen binding in uterine cytosol from the fetal rhesus monkey. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1983; 4:355–365.

Kimmel, GL, Smith K, Kochhar DM, Pratt RM (eds). Proceedings, Consensus Workshop on In Vitro Teratogenesis Testing. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1982; 2:221–378.

Kimmel GL, Smith K, Kochhar DM, Pratt RM. Overview of in vitro teratogenicity testing: Aspects of validation and application to screening. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 1982; 2:221–229.

Kimmel GL. Developmental aspects of chemical interaction with cellular targets. pp. 115–130. In: Developmental Toxicity. Kimmel CA, Buelke-Sam J (eds), Raven Press, New York, 1981.

Marks TA, Kimmel GL, Staples R. Influence of symmetrical polychlorinated biphenyl isomers on embryo and fetal development in mice. I. Teratogenicity of 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. Tox Appl Pharm 1981; 61:269–276.

Pitt CG, Gratzl MM, Kimmel GL, Surles J, Schindler A. Aliphatic Polyesters II. The degradation of Poly (DL-Lactide), Poly (Epsilon-Caprolactone), and their copolymers in vivo. Biomaterials 1981; 2:215–220.

Harmon JR, Kimmel GL. Estrogen receptor characterization following selective sedimentation separation of estrogen-binding components in immature rat Uterine Cytosol. J Recept Res 1981; 2:555–574.

Kimmel GL, Harmon JR. Characteristics of estrogen binding in uterine cytosol during the perinatal period in the rat. J Steroid Biochem 1980; 12:73–75.

Kimmel GL, Hartwell BS, Andrew FD. A potential mechanism in medroxyprogesterone acetate teratogenesis. Teratology 1979; 19:171–176.

Wani MC, Rector DH, White DH, Pitt CG, Kimmel GL. Synthesis, antifertility activity, and protein binding affinity of 7(8 Leads To 11 Alpha)Abeo steroids. J Med Chem 1977; 20:547-551.

Wani MC, Rector DH, Christensen HD, Kimmel GL, Cook CE. Flavonoids. 8. Synthesis and antifertility and estrogen receptor binding activities of coumarins and delta3-isoflavenes. J Med Chem 1975; 18:982–985.

Haksar A, Maudsley DV, Kimmel GL, Peron FG, Robidoux WF Jr, Gagnon G. Adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cyclic Adenosine 3', 5'-Monophosphate formation in isolated rat adrenal cells. The role of membrane sialic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta 1974; 362:356-365.

Kimmel GL, Peron FG, Haksar A, Bedigian E, Robidoux WF Jr, Lin MT. Ultrastructure, steroidogenic potential, and energy metabolism of the Snell Adrenocortical Carcinoma 494. A comparison with normal adrenocortical tissue. J Cell Biol 1974; 62:152–163.

Kimmel GL, Moulton BC, Leavitt WW. Uptake and retention of ( 3 H) Oestradiol By Myometrial and Deciduomal tissue in the pseudopregnant rat. J Endocrinol 1973; 56:335–336.

Leavitt WW, Kimmel GL, Friend JP. Steroid hormone uptake by anterior pituitary cell suspensions. Endocrinology 1973 Jan; 92(1):94–103.

Prior Experience

Visiting Scientist, U.S. FDA, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, 2004–2007

Independent Consultant, 2004-2007

Toxicologist, U.S. EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment (ORD), 1984–2004

Developmental Toxicologist, US FDA, National Center for Toxicological Research, 1977–1984

Biologist, Research Triangle Institute, 1973–1977

Postdoctoral Fellow, Steroid Biochemistry Program, Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, 1972–1973 

Academic Appointments

Adjunct Professor, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, 1988–2001

Technical Advisor, NIH grant (CA48061), Biostatistical problems in carcinogenicity and teratology. Principal Investigator: Louise Ryan, Ph.D., Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health; Boston MA, 1999

Adjunct, University of Arkansas Medical School, Dept of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1983–1989

Professional Affiliations

Teratology Society

Mid Atlantic Reproduction and Teratology Association

European Teratology Society

Midwest Teratology Association 


  • Ph.D., Physiology, University of Cincinnati, 1972
  • M.S., Physiology, University of Cincinnati, 1969
  • A.B., Zoology, Miami University, 1967