Wayman Turner
Wayman E. Turner
Senior Scientist
Environmental & Earth Sciences
  • Atlanta

Mr. Turner’s technical expertise includes clinical/nutritional biochemistry, bioanalytical chemistry, analytical chemistry, laboratory data handling and quality control/quality assurance, specimen collection and storage, and human biomonitoring and chemical exposure assessment. He is recognized worldwide for his research in the measurement of persistent organic pollutants and their assessment in the human body.

Prior to joining Exponent, Mr. Turner was Chief of the Dioxin and Persistent Organic Pollutants (DOXPOPs) Laboratory in the Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch, National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), where he specialized in human exposure assessment and internal dose measurements of persistent environmental pollutants using high-resolution gas chromatography/isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. For the past 23 years, Mr. Turner directed the scientists in DOXPOPs Laboratory at CDC in the development and application of state-of-the-art analytical methods for measuring environmental chemicals and their metabolites in human specimens. These methods were applied in large-scale epidemiologic studies such as the U.S. Air Force Operation Ranch Hand study; Vietnam Veteran Agent Orange study; Seveso, Italy, Dioxin Exposure and NCI Cancer studies; NIOSH Workers Dioxin Exposure study; World Trade Center Firemen; Anniston, Alabama Community Health study; and the biannual National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) designed to establish background reference ranges of environmental chemicals in the U.S. population. In this position, Mr. Turner was in charge of all daily laboratory operations, including sample preparation, mass spectrometry analysis, quality control, final data review, and reporting of results for all studies conducted.

Mr. Turner also served for 5 years as Chief of the Bioanalytical Research Laboratory, Analytical Biochemistry Branch, NCEH,CDC, where he directed and conducted the evaluation and development of bioanalytical methods (bioassays) for environmental toxicants, including chemicals on the EPA’s list of Priority Pollutants. These techniques were applied in screening for toxicants in adulterated oil samples from the Toxic-Oil Syndrome outbreak in Spain.

Additionally, Mr. Turner served for 7 years as Chief of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Laboratory, Nutritional Biochemistry Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division, Bureau of Laboratories, CDC, for NHANES I and II, and served as liaison to the Toxicology Branch for NHANES II blood lead measurements. In this position Mr. Turner supervised the laboratory analysis of all NHANES urine and serum specimens for all clinical/nutritional analytes performed at CDC utilizing a wide range of analytical techniques (spectrophotometry, fluorometry, immunoassays, bioassays, enzymatic assays, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and flame photometry) and was responsible for the laboratory quality control, data review, and reporting of results.

Mr. Turner is the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific papers, 12 book chapters, and more than 70 scientific presentations, 54 of which were published as short papers in Organohalogen Compounds.

CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS

  • M.S., Biological Science, Georgia State University, 1970
  • B.S., Biological Science, Georgia State College, 1968

Publications

Needham LL, Grandjean P, Heinzow B, Jorgensen PJ, Nielsin F, Patterson DG Jr, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Weihe P. Partition of environmental chemicals between maternal and fetal blood tissues. Environmental Science and Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es1019614 Dec 2010.

Humblet O, Williams PL, Korrick SA, Sergeyev O, Emond C, Birnbaum LS, Burns JS, Altshul L, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Lee MM, Hauser R. Predictors of serum dioxin, furan and PCB concentrations among women from Chapaevsk, Russia. Environmental Science and Technology 2010; 44:5633–5640.

Burns JS, Williams PL, Sergeyev O, Korrick S, Lee MM, Revich B, Altshul L, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Needham LL, Saharov I, Hauser R. Predictors of serum dioxins and PCBs among peri-pubertal Russian boys. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009; 117:1593–1599.

LaKind JS, Berlin CM, Sjödin A, Turner WE, Wang R, Needham LL, Paul IM, Stokes JL, Naiman DQ, Patterson DG. Do human milk concentrations of persistent organic chemicals really decline during lactation? Chemical concentrations during lactation and milk serum partitioning. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009; 117:1625–1631.

Niskar AS, Needhman LL, Rubin C, Turner WE, Martin CA, Patterson DG Jr, Hasty L, Wang L-Y, Marcus M. Serum dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and endometriosis: A case-control study. Chemosphere 2009; 74:944–949.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Caudill SP, DiPietro DS, McClure PC, Cash TP, Osterloh J, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ, Needham LL. U.S. population levels of persistent organic pollutants (2003-2004) included in the Stockholm and long-range transboundary air pollution conventions. Environmental Science and Technology 2009; 43:1211–1218.

Wong L-Y, Millette DM, Uddin MS, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr, Turner W, Henderson A Serum dioxin levels in residents of Calcasieu and Lafayette parishes, Louisiana with comparison to the US population. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2008; 18:252–261. [This paper was nominated for the 2008 Charles C. Shepard Science Award in the Assessment & Epidemiology category at CDC.]

Mocarelli P, Gerthoux PM, Patterson DG Jr, Milani S, Limonta G, Bertona M, Signorini S, Tramacere P, Colombo L, Crespi C, Brambilla P, Sarto C, Carreri V, Sampson EJ, Turner WE Needham LL. Dioxin exposure, from infancy through puberty, produces endocrine disruption and affects human sperm quality. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008; 116:70–77.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Caudill SP, Needham LL Total TEQ reference range (PCDDs, PCDFs, cPCBs, mono-PCBs) for the U.S. Population 2001–2002. Chemosphere 2008; 73:S261–S277.

Sjodin A, Wong LY, Jones RS, Park A, Zhang Y, Hodge C, DiPietro E, McClure C, Turner W, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Serum concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polybrominated Biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003–2004. Environmental Science and Technology 2008; 42:1377–1384.

Schantz MM, Keller JM, Leigh S, Patterson DG Jr, Sharpless KE, Sjodin A, Stapleton HM, Swarthout R, Turner WE, Wise SA. Certification of SRM 1589a PCBs, pesticides, PBDEs, and dioxins/furans in human serum. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2007; 389:1201–1208.

Tsuchiya M, Tsukino H, Iwasaki M, Sasaki H, Tanaka T, Katoh T, Patterson DG, Turner W, Needham L, Tsugane S. Interaction between cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms and serum organochlorine TEQ levels in the risk of endometriosis. Molecular Human Reproduction 2007; 13:399–404.

Caudill SP, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. Geometric mean estimation from pooled samples. Chemosphere 2007; 69:371–380.

Pavuk M, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Needham LL, Ketchum NS. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the serum of US Air Force Veterans in 2002 (n=106). Chemosphere 2007; 68:62–68.

Bernert JT, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Needham LL. Calculation of serum “total lipid” concentrations for the adjustment of persistent organohalogen toxicant measurements in human samples. Chemosphere 2007; 68:824–831.

Caudill SP, Wong L-Y, Turner WE, Lee R, Henderson A, Patterson DG Jr. Percentile estimation using variable censored data. Chemosphere 2007; 68:169–180.

Lambert GH, Needham LL, Turner WE, Lai TJ, Patterson DG Jr, Guo YL. Induced CYP1A2 activity as a phenotypic biomarker in humans highly exposed to certain PCBs/PCDFs. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 40:6176–6180.

Grainger J, Huang W, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Pirkle J, Caudill S, Wang R, Needham LL, Sampson EJ. Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the U.S. population by measurement of urinary mono-hydroxy metabolites. Environmental Research 2006; 100:394–423.

Tsukino H, Hanaok T, Sasaki H, Motoyama H, Hiroshima M, Tanaka T, Kabuto M, Turner W, Patterson DG Jr, Needham L, Tsugane S. Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women. Science of the Total Environment 2006; 359:90–100.

Lambert GH, Needham LL, Turner WE, Lai TJ, Patterson DG Jr, Guo YL. Induced CYP1A2 activity as a phenotypic biomarker in humans exposed to PCBs/PCDFs. Epidemiology 2005; 16:S154–S155.

Hauser R, Williams P, Altshul L, Korrick S, Peeples L, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Lee MM, Revich B, Sergeyev O. Predictors of serum dioxin levels among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia: A cross-sectional pilot study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 2005; 4/8:1–13. doi:10.1186.

Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Lioy PJ, Santella RM, Wang RY, Jones RL, Caldwell KL Sjodin A, Turner WE, Li W, Georgopoulos P, Berkowitz GS. Exposures among pregnant women near the World Trade Center Site on 11 September 2001. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113/6:739–748.

Tsukino H, Hanaoka T, Sasaki H, Motoyama K, Hiroshima M, Tanaka T, Kabuto M, Niskar AS, Rubin C, Patterson DG Jr, Turner W, Needham L, Tsugane S. Associations between serum levels of organochlorine compounds in infertile Japanese women. Environmental Research 2005; 99:118–125.

Needham LL, Barr DB, Caudill SP, Pirkle JL, Turner WE, Osterloh J, Jones RL, Sampson EJ. Concentrations of environmental chemicals associated with neurodevelopmental effects in U.S. population. Neurotoxicology 2005; 26:531–545.

Focant JF, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. Measurement of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in human serum and milk using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 2004; 76:6313–6320.

Focant JF, Cochran JW, Dimandja JMD, DePraw E, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. High-throughput analysis of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum by gas chromatography/isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/IDTOFMS). Analyst 2004; 129:331–336.

Huang W, Grainger J, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Caudill S, Needham LL, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ. Comparison of 1-hydroxypyrene exposure in the U.S. population with occupational exposure studies. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2004; 77:491–498.

Edelman P, Osterloh J, Pirkle J, Caudill SP, Grainger J, Jones R, Blount B, Calafat A, Turner W, Feldman D, Baron S, Bernard B, Lushniak BD, Kelly K, Prezant D. Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City Firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003; 111/16:1906–1911.

Sjodin A, Jones RS, Lapeza, Focant JF, Wang R, McGahee E.E. III, Turner WE, Slazyk B, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Retrospective time trend study of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in human serum from the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004; 112/6:654–658.

Bates MN, Buckland SJ, Garrett N, Ellis H, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr, Turner WE, Russell DG. Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population. Chemosphere 2004; 54:1431–1443.

Barr JB, Maggio VL, Barr DG, Turner WE, Sjodin A, Sandau CD, Pirkle JL, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr. A new high-resolution mass spectrometric approach for the measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human serum or plasma. Journal of Chromatography B 2003; 794(1):137–148.

Eskenazi B, Mocarelli P, Warner M, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr, Turner WE, Gerthoux PM, Brambillia P Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and age at exposure of female residents of Seveso, Italy. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004; 112/1:22–27.

Warner M, Eskenazi B, Patterson DG, Jr, Clark GC, Turner WE, Bonsignore L, Mocarelli P, Gerthoux PM. Dioxin-lie TEQ of women from the Seveso, Italy area by HRGC/ID-HRMS and CALUX. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005; 15:310–318.

Orloff KG, Dearwent S, Metcalf S, Kathman S, Turner W. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenlys in a residential community (Anniston, AL). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2003; 44:125–131.

Barr DB, Turner WE, DiPietro ES, McClure PC, Baker SE, Barr JR, Gehle K, Grissom RE, Jr, Bravo R, Driskell WJ, Patterson DG, Jr, Hill RH, Jr, Needham LL, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ. Measurement of p-Nitrophenol in the urine of residents whose homes were contaminated with methyl parathion. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110(Suppl 6):1085–1091.

Eskenazi B, Mocarelli P, Warner M, Samules S, Vercellini P, Olive D, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr, Brambilla P, Gavoni N, Casalini S, Panazza S, Turner WE, Gerthoux PM. Serum dioxin concentrations and endometriosis: A cohort study in Seveso, Italy. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110:629–634.

Smith CJ, Huang W, Walcott CJ, Turner W, Grainger J, Patterson DG, Jr. Quantification of monohydroxy-PAH metabolites in urine by solid-phase extraction with isotope dilution-GC-MS. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2002; 372:216–220.

Rier SE, Turner WE, Martin DC, Morris R, Lucier GW, Clark GC. Serum levels of TCDD and dioxin-like chemical in rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to dioxin: Correlation of increased serum PCB levels with endometriosis. Toxicological Sciences 2001; 59:147–159.

Orloff KG, Hewitt D, Metcalf S, Kathman S, Lewin M, Turner W. Dioxin exposure in a residential community (Calcasieu Parish, LA). Journal of Exposure Analyis and Environmental Epidemiology 2001; 11:352–358.

Huwe JK, Shelver WL, Stanker L, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE. On the isolation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from serum samples using immunoaffinity chromatography prior to high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography 2001; B 757:285–290.

Mocarelli P, Gerthoux PM, Ferrari E, Patterson DG Jr, Kieszak SM, Brambilla P, Vincoli N, Signorini S, Tramacere P, Carreri V, Sampson EJ, Turner WE, Needham LL. Paternal concentrations of dioxin and sex ratio of offspring. Lancet 2000; 355:1858–1863. Commentary on p. 1838.

Dimandja JMD, Grainger J, Patterson DG, Turner WE, Needham LL. Measurements for assessing environmental exposures to children using small amounts of serum and urine. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2000; 10(6) Part 2:761–768.

Needham LL, Gerthoux PM, Patterson DG Jr, Brambilla P, Turner WE, Smith EJ, Sampson EJ, Mocarelli P. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy. Environmental Research 1999; 80(A):S200–S206.

Needham LL, Gerthoux PM, Patterson DG Jr, Brambillia P, Turner WE, Beretta C, Pirkle JL, Colombo L, Sampson EJ, Tramacere PL, Signorini S, Meazza L, Carreri V, Jackson RJ, Mocarelli P. Serum dioxin levels in Seveso, Italy, Population in 1976. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1997/1998 17:225–240.

Bernert JT, Turner WE, Pirkle JL, Sosnoff CS, Akins JR, Waldrep MK, Ann Q, Covery TR, Whitfield WE, Gunter EW, Miller BB, Patterson DG Jr, Needham LL, Hannon WH, Sampson EJ. Development and validation of a sensitive method for the determination of serum cotinine in both smokers and nonsmokers by using liquid chromatography/ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Clinical Chemistry 1997; 43/12:2281–2291.

Barr JR, Maggio VL, Patterson DG Jr, Cooper GR, Henderson LO, Turner WE, Smith SJ, Hannon WH, Needham LL, Sampson EJ. A new isotope dilution-mass spectrometry method for quantitation of specific proteins: A model application to using Apolipoprotein A-1. Clinical Chemistry 1996; 42/10:1676–1682.

Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr, Burse VW, Paschal DC, Turner WE, Hill RH, Jr. Reference range data for assessing exposure to selected environmental toxicants. Toxicology and Industrial Health 1996; 12(3/4):507–513.

Barnhart ER, Maggio VL, Alexander LR, Reily MC, Gelbaum LT, Turner WE, Hine TK, Patterson DG Jr, Needham LL. Analytical charaterization of peptide contaminants of L-tryptophan. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1996; 30:142–148.

Patterson DG, Jr, Todd GD, Turner WE, Maggio V, Alexander LR, Needham LL. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue. Environmental Health Perspectives 1994; 102(1):195–204.

Turner WE, Patterson DG, Jr, Needham LL. Factors influencing the measurement and interpretation of serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 1992; 2:137–154.

Alexander LR, Maggio VL, Gill JB, Green VE, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. Comparison of measurements of 2,3,7,8-Dibenzo-p-Dioxin Chlorine isotope ratios obtained with electron multiplier and photomultiplier detectors. Chemosphere, 1992.

Piacitelli LA, Sweeney MH, Fingerhut MA, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Connally LB, Wille KK, Tompkins B. Serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8–TCDD contaminated chemicals. Chemosphere 1992; 25:251–254.

Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR. Laboratory quality assessment procedures for serum dioxin/furan measurements: U.S. Air Force Ranch Hand and Centers for Disease Control Vietnam Veteran, National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety Chemical Workers, and Seveso, Italy Studies. Chemosphere 1992; 25:793–804.

Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Patterson DG Jr. An automated sample cleanup apparatus used in the procedure for measuring polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and ortho-unsubstituted (planar) biphenyls in human serum and adipose tissue. Chemosphere 1992; 25:805–810.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR. Method performance evaluation and lessons learned after analyzing more than 5,000 human adipose tissue, serum, and breast milk samples for PCDDs and PCDFs. Chemosphere 1990; 20:829–836.

Barnhart ER, Maggio VL, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Needham LL, Reilly MH, Gelbaum LT. Bacitracin-associated peptides and contaminated L-tryptophan. Lancet 1990; 366:742.

Alexander LR, Maggio VL, Gill JB, Green VE, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Green BN, Gray BW, Guyan SA, Krolik ST, Nicolaysen LC. Performance of the high sensitivity ion source for PCDD/PCDF analyses in human serum and adipose tissue. Chemosphere 1989; 19:241–248.

Patterson DG Jr, Furst P, Henderson LO, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Needham LL, Hannon H. Partitioning of in-vivo bound PCDDs/PCDFs among various compartments in whole blood. Chemosphere 1989; 19:135–142.

Alexander LR, Maggio VL, Gill JB, Green VE, Turner WE, Isaacs S, Patterson DG Jr, Bill JC, Grove IS. Automated processing of high resolution mass spectrometry selected ion recording data for multiple group analysis. Chemosphere 1989; 19:1811–1817.

Patterson DG Jr, Furst P, Alexander LR, Isaacs SG, Turner WE, Needham LL. Analysis of human serum for PCDDs/PCDFs: A comparison of three extraction procedures. Chemosphere 1989; 19:89–96.

DiPietro ES, Bashor MM, Stroud PE, Smarr BJ, Burgess BJ, Turner WE, Neese JW. Comparison of an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method for the determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, and zinc with atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometry methods. Science Total Environment 1988; 74:249–22.

Van Assendelft OW, Fairbanks VF, Gunter EW, Turner WE. Determination of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity. NCCLS Proposed Standard, Document H17-P, 1990. I was the principal investigator for the development of the CDC Serum Iron Reference Method between 1978–1981. This CDC Reference Method served as the basis for the NCCLS Standard.

Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR, Patterson DG Jr. A quality assurance program for large-scale studies measuring 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in human serum. Chemosphere 1989; 18:1009–1016.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Alexander LR, Isaacs SG, Needham LL. The analytical methodology and method performance for the determination of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in serum for the Vietnam Veteran Agent Orange Validation Study, the Ranch Hand Validation and Half-Life Studies selected NIOSH Worker Studies. Chemosphere 1989; 18:875–882.

Gunter EW, Turner WE, Huff DL. An investigation of Protoporphyrin IX standard materials used in acid-extraction methods and a proposed correction for the millimolar absorptivity of Protoporpyrin IX. Clinical Chemistry 1989; 35:1601–1608.

Miller B, Turner WE. Monoclonal antibodies evaluated for use in a screening assay for conjugates of Serum Albumin and Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate. Clinical Chemistry 1989; 35:1756–1759.

Turner WE, Gunter EW Letter to the editor, written on behalf of Dr. Vernon Houk, Director, NCEH, addressing the controversy between measuring "free" and zinc protoporphyrin and CDC's recommendations for protoporphyrin measurements as related to screening for lead poisoning. Houk V.N. Protoporphyrins. Lab Rep Phys 1986 8:85–87.

Turner WE, Hill RH, Jr, Hannon WH, Bernert JT Jr, Kilbourne EM, Bayse DD. Bioassay screening for toxicants in oil samples from the Toxic-Oil Syndrome outbreak in Spain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1985; 14:261–271.

Jenson RJ, Adam B, Turner WE, Hannon WH. An evaluation of different filter paper lots used for blood spot collection during last five years. National Screening Symposium, 1984. Chan M (ed), Florida, Department of Health, pp 15–29, 1984.

Turner WE, Bayse DD. A report of the Vitamins A and C Program of the WHO-IUNS Standardization and Quality Control of Laboratory Methods for the Assessment of Vitamin Status. World Health Organization, pp. 1–10, March 29, 1978.

Carter RJ, Turner WE, Sheard EA, Bayse DD. Part A: Description of the source and preparation of the WHO Pool, Report on the World Health Organization Experimental Reference Serum Lot 4976, pp 1–20, March 29, 1978.

Turner WE, Carter RJ, Neese JW, Bayse DD. Part B: Stability, target analyses, and homogeneity of the WHO Trace Metals Pool. Report on the World Health Organization Experimental Reference Serum Lot 4976, pp 1–22, March 29, 1978.

Turner WE, Ahearn DG. Ecology and physiology of an asphalt refinery and its watershed. Spectrum, Monograph Series in Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University, Ahearn DG (ed), pp 113–120, Atlanta, GA, 1971.

Publications and Presentations 1994–2010


Turner WE, Caudill SP, McClure PC, DiPietro ES, Cash TP. Another look at the estimation of serum “total lipid” using enzymatic method data from pooled human specimens. Organohalogen Compounds 2010; 72.

DiPietro ES, Wong L-Y, McClure PC, Cash TP, Turner WE. Selected predictor variables of four organochlorine pesticide or their metabolite levels in the general U.S. population. Organohalogen Compounds 2009; 71: 137–140.

McClure PC, Wong L-Y, DiPietro ES, Cash TP, Turner WE. Selected predictor variables of total serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels in the general U.S. population 2003–2004. Organohalogen Compounds 2010; 72.

Schantz MM, Keller JM, Kucklick JR, Patterson DG Jr, Sharpless KE, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Vander Pol SS, Wise SA. SRMs for monitoring human exposure to organic contaminants. Organohalogen Compounds 2010; 72.

Edenfield E, Zhang Y, Anderson J, Hodge C, Dalton Y, DiPietro ES, Turner WE, Sjodin A Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other persistent organohalogen compounds in the United States population: 2001–2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2010; 72.

Diliberto JJ, Sirineck L, Becker J, Jude DC, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Burkhalter B, Haws LC, Tachovsky JA, Landy RB, Birnbaum LS. Cohort of women living in a highly industrialized area of Kanawha River Valley in West Virginia: Endometriosis and blood levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals. Organohalogen Compounds 2010; 72.

Pavuk M, Olson JR, Sjodin A, Bonner M., Dearwent SM, Turner WT, Needham LL, for the Anniston Environmental Health Research Consortium. Assessment of human exposure to PCBs in the Anniston Community Health Study. Organohalogen Compounds 2009; 71: 137–140.

Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Wong Y-L, DiPietro ES, Cash TP, McClure PC, Needham LL. Serum PCBs levels in the U.S. population from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Organohalogen Compounds 2008; 70:317–320.

Diliberto JJ, Becker J, Jude D, Sirnek L, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Landy RB, Hughes T, Staats DA, Birnbaum L. Cohort study of women in West Virginia: Serum levels of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds. Organohalogen Compounds 2008; 70:654–657.

Patterson DG Jr, Wong L-Y, Turner WE, Caudill SP, DiPietro ES, McClure PC, Cash TP, Osterloh JD., Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ, Needham LL. U.S. population levels of total TEQs (PCDDs, PCDFs, Dioxin-Like PCBs) and total PCBs (2003–2004). Organohalogen Compounds 2008; 70:98–101.

Burns JS, Williams PL, Oleg S, Korrick S, Lee MM, Revich B, Altshul L, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Saharov I, Hauser R. Predictors of serum dioxins and PCBs in a Russian cohort of boys. Organohalogen Compounds 2008; 70: 1490–1493.

Needham LL, Calafat AM, Turner WE, Sjodin A, Wong L-Y. Concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in pooled serum from children participating in NHANES 2001–2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2008; 70:1712–1715.

Schantz M, Keller JM, Kucklick JR, Patterson DG Jr, Shapless KE, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Vander Pol SS, Wise SA. SRMs for monitoring human exposure to organic contaminants. Organohalogen Compounds 2008; 70: 1874–1877.

Sjodin A, Wong L-Y, Jones RS, Park A, Zhang Y, Hodge C, DiPietro E, McClure C, Turner WE, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polybrominated Biphenyl (PBB) in the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States: 2003–2004. Organohalogen Compounds 2007; 69:766–769.

Focant JF, Cash TP, Turner WE, Shirkhan H, Sadeghi K, Patterson DG Jr. Investigation on the capabilities of a new parallel Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) System for dioxins and PCBs in biological samples. Organohalogen Compounds 2007; 69: 481–484.

Patterson DG Jr, Lorber M, Turner WE, Needham LL. A comparison of the PCDD/PCDF TEQ for the US population in 2001–2002 and a pharmacokinetic model for estimating exposure. Organohalogen Compounds 2007; 69:2054–2057.

Patterson DG Jr, Pavuk M, Turner WE, Robinson JN, Needham LL. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the participants of the Air Force Health Study in 2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2007; 69:782–784.

Pavuk M, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Lee R, Sjodin A, DiPietro ES, Needham LL, Olson JR, Lane JB, Biasini FJ, Percy AK. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in serum of children living in the vicinity of the former PCB production facility in Anniston, Alabama. Organohalogen Compounds 2007; 69:758–761.

Young HA, Kang HK, Dalager NA, Castel A, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Matanoski G. Risk for fathering children with birth defects among Army Chemical Corps Vietnam Veterans who sprayed defoliant in Vietnam. Organohalogen Compounds 2007; 69:524–527.

Turner WE, Welch SM, DiPietro ES, Whitfield WE, Cash TP, McClure PC, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Instrumental approaches for improving the detection limit for selected PCDD congeners in samples from the general U.S. population as background levels continue to decline. Organohalogen Compounds 2006; 68:2477–2780.

Patterson DG Jr, Welch SM, Focant J-F and Turner WE. The use of various gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques for human biomonitoring studies. Organohalogen Compounds 2006; 68: 932–935.

Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr, Calafat AM, Sjodin A, Turner WE and Kuklenyik Z. Distribution of halogenated environmental chemicals among people of different ages, races and sexes in the United States. Organohalogen Compounds 2006; 68: 484–488.

Pavuk M, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Robinson JN, Needham LL. PCDDs, PCDFs and cPCBs in the serum of 800 US Air Force Veterans in 2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2006; 68: 756–759.

Kucklick JR Schantz MM, Keller JM, VanderPol SS, Heltsley RM, Patterson DG Jr, Poster DL, Sharpless KE, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Wise SA. New reference materials for human blood and milk produced by the National Institute of Standards and technology for the analysis of persistent organic pollutants. Organohalogen Compounds 2006; 68: 1384–1385.

Turner WE, DiPietro ES, Welch SW, Cash TP, McClure PC, Caudill S, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Third national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals – PCB Levels from NHANES 1999–2000 and 2001–2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:1582–151585.

DiPietro ES, Turner WE, Welch SM, Cash TP, McClure PC, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides levels in the U.S. population from NHANES II (1976-1980), NHANES 1999–2000 and 2001–2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:1680–161683.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Caudill S, Needham LL. Total TEQ reference range (PCDDs, PCDFs, cPCBs, mono-PCBs) for the U.S. population 2001–2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:1577–1580.

Patterson DG Jr, Welch S, Turner WE, Focant JF. The use of cryogenic zone compression for the measurement of POPs in human serum at attogram levels by GC/ID-HRMS. Organohalogen Compounds 2005; 67:107–110.

Hauser R, Williams P, Altshul L, Korrick S, Peeples L, Patterson D, Turner WE, Lee MM, Revich B, Zeilert V, Sergeyev O. Characterization and predictors of serum dioxin levels among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Organohalogen Compounds 2004; 66:3245–3251.

Patterson DG Jr, Canady R, Wong LY, Lee R, Turner WE, Caudill S, Needham LL, Henderson A, Glassman J. Age specific dioxin TEQ reference range. Organohalogen Compounds 2004; 66:2878–2883.

Turner WE, Welch SM, DiPietro ES, Cash TP, McClure PC, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. The phantom menace – Determination of the true method detection limit (MDL) for background levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cPCBs in human serum by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Organohalogen Compounds 2004; 66:264–271.

Focant J, Sjodin A, Turner WE, Patterson D Jr. Measurement of selected halogenated contaminants in human serum and milk using GCxGC-IDTOFMS. Organohalogen Compounds 2004; 66:817–824.

Warner M, Eskenazi B, Patterson DG Jr, Clark G, Turner WE, Bonsignore L, Mocarelli P, Gerthoux PM. Comparison of the CALUX bioassay and ID-HRGC/HRMS as measures of dioxin toxic equivalents in serum. Organohalogen Compounds 2003; 60:416–419.

Turner WE, DiPietro ES, Welch SM, Cash TP, McClure PC, Barr JR, Needham LL, Patterson DG Jr. Analytical challenge: The quantification of background levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cPCBs in the United States General Population. Organohalogen Compounds 2003; 60:134–137.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Sjodin A, Sandau CD, Focant JF, Grainger J, Needham LL Fast, sensitive, and comprehensive analytical methods including three-dimensional analysis (GCxGX-TofMS) for measuring halogenated persistent organic pollutants. Organohalogen Compounds 2003; 60:387–390.

Millette MD, Uddin M, Wong LY, Hilsdon R, Turner WE, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr. An investigation of blood dioxin levels among persons in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Organohalogen Compound 2003; 60:25–28.

Sjodin A, Jones RS, Lapeza C, Focant JF, Wang R, Turner WE, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr. Retrospective time trend study of brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum from various regions of the United States from 1985 to 2002. Organohalogen Compounds 2003; 61:1–4.

Barr JR, Maggio VL, Turner WE, Barr DB, Pirkle JL, Sjodin A, Sandau CD, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr. New mass spectrometric approaches for the measurement of PCBs and persistent pesticides in human serum. Organohalogen Compounds 2002; 55:191–194.

Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr, Turner WE. Comparison of assessing levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in selected populations by biomonitoring and exposure indices. Organohalogen Compounds 2002; 59:131–134.

Shelver WL, Huwe JK, Stanker LH., Patterson DG, Jr, Turner WE. A monoclonal antibody based immunoaffinity column for isolation of PCDD/PCDF from serum. Organohalogen Compounds 2000; 45:33–36.

Huwe JK, Shelver WL, Patterson DG, Jr, Turner WE. Application of an immunoaffinity column to the isolation of PCDDs/Fs from serum samples. Organohalogen Compounds 1999; 40:15–18.

Bates MN, Buckland SJ, Ellis HK, Garrett N, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr, Turner WE, Russell D, Wilson N, Duncan A. PCDDs and PCDFs in the serum of non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population. Organohalogen Compounds 1999; 44:17–21.

Turner WE, Cash TP, DiPietro ES, Patterson DG Jr. Evaluation andapplications of the Power-PrepTM “Universal” automated cleanup system for PCDDs, PCDFs, cPCBs, PCB congeners, and chlorinated pesticides in biological samples. Organohalogen Compounds 1998; 35:21–24.

Barr JR, Maggio VL, Green VE, McClure PC, Grainger J, Turner WE, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr. Fast gas chromatography/isotope dilution-high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in human serum. Organohalogen Compounds 1997; 31:119–123.

Patterson DG, Jr, Barr JR, DiPietro E, Grainger J, Green V, Lapeza C, Jr., Maggio V, McClure PC, Sirimanne S, Smith C, Turner WE, Woolfit AR. Analytical advances in biological monitoring: A new era of high speed in both sample preparation and analysis. Organohalogen Compounds 1997; 31:193–198.

Barr JR, Green VE, Lapeza CR Jr, Maggio VL, Turner WE, Woolfit AR, Grainger J, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr. New mass spectrometric approaches for the analysis of PCBs and persistent pesticides in human serum. Organohalogen Compounds 1997; 31:276–281.

Gilroy D, Heumann M, Patterson D, Jr, Turner WE, Needham LL, Mortimer V. Assessing hospital employee PCDD/PCDF/coplanar PCB exposure from a medical waste incinerator (Oregon). Organohalogen Compounds 1997; 33:394–397.

DiPietro ES, Lapeza CR Jr, Cash TP, Turner WE, Green VE, Gill JB, Patterson DG, Jr. A fast universal automated cleanup system for the isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar-PCBs, PCB congeners, and persistent pesticides from one serum sample. Organohalogen Compounds 1997; 31:26–31.

Patterson DG Jr, Barr JR, DiPietro ES, Granger J, Green VE, Lapeza CR Jr, Maggio VL, McClure PC, Sirimanne S, Turner WE. comprehensive two-dimensional and fast single-dimensional GC-HRMS analysis of human serum for PCDDs, PCDFs, cPCBs, Congener PCBs, persistent and non-persistent pesticides, and PAHs. Organohalogen Compounds 1996; 27:309–314.

Kocan A, Patterson DG Jr, Petrik J, Turner WE, Chovancova J, Brobna B. PCDD, PCDF and Coplanar PCB levels in blood from the human population of the Slovak Republic. Organohalogen Compounds 1996; 30:137–14.

Patterson DG, Jr, Barr JR, DiPietro ES, Grainger J, Green VE, Lapeza CR Jr, Maggio VL, McClure PC, Sirimanne S, Turner WE. Comprehensive two-dimensional and fast single-dimensional GC-HRMS analysis of human serum for PCDDs, PCDFs, cPCBs, congener PCBs, persistent and non-persistent pesticides, and PAHs. Organohalogen Compounds 1996; 27:309–314.

Holoubek I, Dusek L, Matlova L, Caslavsky J, Paterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Pokorny B, Bencko V, Hajslova J, Kocourek V, Schoula R, Kocan A, Chovancova J, Petrik J, Drobna B. PROJECT TOCOEN. The fate of selected organic compounds in the environment. Part XXVI. The contents of PCBs and PCDDS/Fs in human fat in Czeck and Slovak Republics. Organohalogen Compounds 1995; 26:257–260.

Needham LL, Gerthoux PM Patterson DG Jr, Brambilla P, Pirkle J, Turner WE, Tramacere PL, Beretta C, Sampson ER, and Mocarelli P. Half-life of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in serum of Seveso Adults: Interim report. Organohalogen Compounds 1994; 21:81–85.

Turner WE, DiPietro ES, Cash TP, McClure PC, Patterson DG Jr, Shirkhan H. An improved SPE extraction and automated sample cleanup method for serum PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs. Organohalogen Compounds 1994; 19:31–36.

Abstracts and Presentations (1987–1993)


Turner WE, Cash TP, Patterson DG Jr, Shirkhan H. An evaluation of the FMS Dioxin Prep SystemTM for automated sample cleanup adapted to human serum. Presented at DIOXIN '92, 12th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Tampere, Finland, August 24–28, 1992.

Piacitelli L, Sweeny Haring M, Wild D, Fingerhut M, Patterson D Jr, Turner W, Connally LB, Tompkins B, Schoettelkotte J. Serum levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD contaminated chemicals. Presented at DIOXIN '91, 11th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Research Triangle Park, NC, September 23–27, 1991.

Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR. Laboratory quality assessment procedures for serum dioxin/furan measurements: U.S. Air Force Vietnam Veteran Ranch Hand, NIOSH chemical workers, and Seveso, Italy Studies. Presented at DIOXIN '90, 10th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Bayreuth, Germany, September 10–14, 1990.

Isaacs SG, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. An automated sample cleanup apparatus use in the procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), ortho-substituted [Non-planar] and ortho-unsubstituted [planar] biphenyls (PCBs) in serum and adipose tissue. Presented at DIOXIN '90, 10th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Bayreuth, Germany, September 10–14, 1990.

Alexander LR, Maggio VL, Gill JB, Green VE, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. Comparison of 2,3,7,8-Dibenzo-p-dixon chlorine isotope ratio measurements using electron multiplier and photomultiplier detectors. Presented at DIOXIN '90, 10th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Bayreuth, Germany, September 10–14, 1990.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR. Method performance evaluation and lessons learned after analyzing more than 4,000 serum and adipose tissue samples for PCDDs and PCDFs. Presented at DIOXIN '89, 9th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, September 16–22, 1989

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Alexander LR, Isaacs SG, Needham LL. The analytical methodology for the determination of 2378-TCDD in serum for the Agent Orange Validation study, the Ranch Hand Study and selected NIOSH studies. Presented at DIOXIN '87, 7th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Las Vegas, NV, October 4–9, 1987.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR, Needham LL. a quality assurance program for measuring 2378-TCDD in a large number of serum samples. Presented at DIOXIN '87, 7th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Las Vegas, NV, October 4–9, 1987.

Patterson DG Jr, Barnhart ER, Turner WE, Tanaka N, Araki M. Reversed phase chromatographic separations and retention properties of TCDD on pyrene and ODS column. Presented at DIOXIN '87, 7th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Las Vegas, NV, October 4–9, 1987.

Other Dioxin-Related Abstracts and Presentations

Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr. Assessing human exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Biphenyls (PCBs): Factors to consider in converting a laboratory measurement into a body burden. Presented at Measuring, Understanding and Predicting Exposures in the 21st Century, Sponsored by ATSDR, CDC, and U.S. EPA, Atlanta, GA, November 18–21, 1991.

Todd GD, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR. Analysis for non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue and serum by using high resolution gas chromatography/isotope-dilution high and low resolution mass spectrometry. Presented at 201st ACS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, April 14–19, 1991.

Patterson DG Jr, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Needham LL, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ. Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and Dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in humans: Vietnam Veterans: Occupational (production) and environmentally exposed (residential and recreational) individuals. Presented at the 37th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Miami, FL, May 21–26, 1989.

Patterson DG Jr, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Needham LL. Development and application of a high resolution mass spectrometric method for measuring 2,3,7,8-TCDD in serum. Presented at the 195th ACS National Meeting and 3rd Chemical Congress of North America, Toronto, Canada, June 5–10, 1988.

Patterson DG Jr, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Needham LL, Andrews JS, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ. The application of a high-resolution mass spectrometric method for measuring 2,3,7,8-TCDD in human adipose tissue and serum: The Vietnam Veteran Agent Orange and Ranch Hand Validation Studies; 2,3,7,8-TCDD Human Half-Life Study; Missouri Residents Case/Control Study; and Occupationally Expose Workers. Presented at the 36th ASMS Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 5–10, 1988.

Patterson DG Jr, Barnhart ER, MacBride JAH, Turner WE. Polychlorinated biphenylene production for qualitative reference material. Presented at the 192nd ACS National Meeting, Miami, FL, April 1985.

Books and Other Non-Journal Publications


Orloff K.G, Dearwent S, Metcalf, and Turner W. Human and Environmental Contamination with Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Anniston, Alabama. Chapter 5. In: PCBs Human and Environmental Disposition and Toxicology. Hansen LG, Robertson LW (eds), University of Illinois Press, pp. 60–65, 2008.

Patterson DG Jr, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Needham LL. Development and Application of a High Resolution Mass Spectrometric Method for Measuring Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Serum. Chapter 6. In: Instrumentation for Trace Organic Monitorin. Clement RE, Siu KWM, Hill HH Jr. (eds), Lewis Publishers, pp. 119–154, 1992.

Patterson DG Jr, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Bernert HL, Needham LL. Determination of Specific Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Blood and Adipose Tissue by Isotope-Dilution High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Method 6. In: Environmental Carcinogens - Methods of Analysis and Exposure Measurement. Volume 11 – Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibezofurans, and Biphenyls. Rappe C, Buser HR (eds), WHO International Association for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, pp. 299–342, 1991.

Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Patterson DG Jr, Needham LL. Semi-automated Smith, Stalling, and Johnson Enrichment Method for Biological Samples: Human Serum and Adipose Tissue, Method 7. In: Environmental Carcinogens – Methods of Analysis and Exposure Measurement. Volume 11 - Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls. Rappe C, Buser HR (eds), WHO International Association for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, pp. 343–355, 1991.

Shealy DB, Hill RH, Jr, Orti DL, Bailey SL, Miller BB, Turner WE. Automated sample preparation of serum cotinine for GC/MS analysis. In: Advances in Laboratory Automation Robotics, Zymark Corp., Hopkinton, MA, pp. 533–544, 1991.

Turner WE, Isaacs SG, Patterson DG Jr. Automated apparatus (FMS System 2378) for the extraction and enrichment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue. Volume 6 – Advances in Laboratory Automation Robotics. Strimaitis JR, Helfrich JP (eds), Zymark Corp., Hopkinton, MA, pp. 171–184, 1990.

Needham LL, Ashley DL, Hill RH Jr, Turner WE, Patterson DG Jr, Holler JS, Pirkle JL. A program for assessing background levels of 52 organic toxicants in the U.S. Population. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Volume 2 – Characteristics of Indoor Air, Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing, pp. 453–458, 1990.

Barnhart ER, Patterson DG Jr, MacBride JAH, Alexander LR, Alley CA, Turner WE. Polychlorinated biphenylene production for qualitative reference material. Chapter 33. In: Chlorinated Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Perspective. Choudhary G, Keith LH, Rappe C (eds), John Lewis Publishers, pp. 501–510, 1986.

Gunter EW, Turner WE, Neese JW, Bayse DD. Laboratory procedures used by the clinical chemistry division, Centers for Disease Control, for the Second Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (HANES II) 1976-1980. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, pp. 1–70, 1981.

Turner WE, McGrath CR, Sheard EA, van Assendelft O. Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (HANES I): Hematology and Clinical Procedures Developed or Utilized by the Center for Disease Control. Bureau of Laboratories, pp. 1–104, 1971–1975.

Turner WE, Gunter EW, McGrath CR. Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (HANES II): Field Laboratory Staff Procedure Manual. Prepared and distributed, pp 1–75, 1976.

Carter RJ, Mather A, Dawson CD, Turner WE, Neese JW, Bayse DD. The development of a CDC reference method for determining sodium and potassium in serum. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, pp. 1–143, February 1980.

Turner WE, Dawson CD. Protocol for CDC sodium and potassium round robin. Prepared February pp 1-16, 1981.

Cooper G, Radin N, Burse ., Crittenden C, Jordon L, McGilton G, MacNeil ML, Maggio V, Miller BB, Myers GL, Sampson E, Shamblee T, Turner WE. Report of Ad Hoc Task Force on continuing education in clinical chemistry, pp. 1–105, May 1980.

Turner WE, Roark BR, Bayse DD. Prepared the document that served as the basis for the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Network for Information Exchange of Clinical Chemistry Reference Methods, pp. 1–30, June 1978.

Co-Authored Group Publications

Centers for Disease Control. Serum Dioxin in Vietnam-Era Veterans-Preliminary Report. MMWR 1987; 36:470-475.

Centers for Disease Control. Serum Dioxin Levels in Air Force Health Study Participants-Preliminary Report. MMWR 1988; 37:309–311.

Centers for Disease Control. Preliminary Report: 2,3,7,8-TCDD Exposure to Humans - Seveso, Italy. MMWR 1988; 37:733–736.

Barnhart ER, Maggio VL, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Ash RJ, Gelbaum LT, Patterson DG Jr, Needham LL Determination of bacitracin peptides by FAB/MS and NMR of HPLC fractions of L-Tryptophan extracts (A188). Presented at Kyoto '92, International Conference on Biological Mass Spectrometry, Kyoto, Japan, September 20–24, 1992.

Non-Dioxin Related Abstracts and Presentations

Ma L, Sirimanne SR, Justice J, Turner WE, Patterson DG, Jr. Application of statistical experimental design and optimization of the cloud-point extraction of vitamins A and E from human blood. Abstract for PITTCON '96, Chicago IL, March 3–8, 1996.

Barr JR, Patterson DG Jr, Maggio VL, McClure PC, Turner WE, Newman CM, Needham LL. Quantification of non-persistent pesticides in human serum. Presented at 43rd ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Atlanta, GA, May 21–26, 1995.

Bernert JT, Sosnoff C, Turner W, Akins J, Waldrep MK, Whitfield W, Miller B, Ann Q. Development of a rapid and sensitive method for serum cotinine analysis as a marker of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Clinical Chemistry 1994; 40/6:1075. Presented at 46 National Meeting of the AACC, July 1994.

Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Bernert JT, Alexander LR, Spierto FW, Hill RH Jr. A program to quantitatively assess the amount of passive exposure to cigarette smoke in the U.S. Population. Presentation at ASMS, July 1990.

Neese JW, Roark BR, Turner WE. Use of the glucose reference method to characterize biological reference materials. Clinical Chemistry 1982; 28:1655. Presented at 34th National Meeting of the AACC, July 1982.

Gunter EW, Smarr BJ, Turner WE, and Neese JW Microbiological vs Radio-Assay for Serum and Red Blood Cell (RBC) Folate, and Folate Data from Hanes II. Clinical Chemistry 27: 1097, 1981. Presented at 33rd National Meeting of the AACC July, 1981.

Carter RJ, Turner WE, Dawson CD, Mather A, Neese JW, Bayse DD. The development of a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference method for sodium and potassium in serum. Clinical Chemistry 1979; 25:1140. Presented at the 31st National Meeting of the AACC, July 1979.

Turner WE. Serum zinc and copper levels in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (HANES II). Clinical Chemistry 1978; 24:1028. Presented at the 30th National Meeting of the AACC, July 1978.

Carter RJ, Turner WE, Bayse DD. Trace metal analysis in the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (HANES II). Clinical Chemistry 1977; 23:1126. Presented at the 29th National Meeting of the AACC, July 1977.

Turner WE, Ahearn DG. Effects of oil pollution on populations of yeasts in fresh water. Bacteriology Proceedings 1970; G24. Presented at the National ASM Meeting, June 1970.

Ahearn DG, Turner WE, Mohan RR. Physiology and ultra structure of hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts. Bacteriology Proceedings 1970; G63. Presented at the National ASM Meeting, June 1970.

Prior Experience

Supervisory Research Microbiologist, GS-14, Chief, Dioxin and Persistent Organic Pollutants (DOXPOPs) Laboratory, Organic Analytical Toxicology Branch (OAT), Division of Laboratory Science (DLS), National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), 1997–2010

1986–1997 Supervisory Research Microbiologist, GS-13, Chief, Dioxin Sample Preparation Laboratory and Data Handling Activity within the Dioxin and Persistent Organic Pollutants (DOXPOPs) Laboratory

Project Coordinator, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) Serum Cotinine Project (Phase I - 1988 to 1991); Toxicology Branch, Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control

Supervisory Research Microbiologist, GS-13. Chief, Bioanalytical Research Laboratory, Analytical Biochemistry Branch, Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, 1981–1986

Supervisory Research Microbiologist, GS-13, Chief, Technical Services Section and Supervisor, Reference Laboratory, Nutritional Biochemistry Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division, Bureau of Laboratories, 1978–1981

Supervisory Research Microbiologist, GS-12, Chief, HANES Laboratory, Nutritional Biochemistry Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division, Bureau of Laboratories, 1975–1978

Acting Branch Chief, HANES Laboratory, Nutritional Biochemistry Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division, Bureau of Laboratories, 1976–1977

Supervisory Research Microbiologist, GS-11, Supervisor, HANES Laboratory, Nutritional Biochemistry Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division, Bureau of Laboratories, 1974–1975

CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS

  • M.S., Biological Science, Georgia State University, 1970
  • B.S., Biological Science, Georgia State College, 1968