Richard Whiting
Richard C. Whiting, Ph.D.
Senior Managing Scientist
Chemical Regulation & Food Safety
  • Bowie

Dr. Whiting has over 35 years of experience in food science and technology research with extensive knowledge of microbial food safety issues from production to retail, food service, and consumers. At Exponent, Dr. Whiting has qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the safety of food processes via hazard analyses, risk profiles, and risk assessments to identify microbial contamination routes, deficient food processing practices and appropriate mitigation steps. He has designed experimental procedures to demonstrate process safety, evaluated HACCP/management systems and microbial sampling plans intended to assure safety, performed root cause analyses to determine the likely cause of product failures, and assisted clients with regulatory issues. Dr. Whiting advises clients on issues in food science and technology, microbiological modeling and risk assessment, and consumer product safety. 

Dr. Whiting is internationally recognized for his research and applications in mathematical modeling of food borne microorganisms to estimate the growth, survival, or inactivation of harmful and spoilage bacteria in foods. He has used these to determine the level of risk that a food has and the reduction in risk that different processing steps could achieve. Dr. Whiting’s contributions have been applied by linking this innovative science to individual food processing steps and to entire manufacturing processes to estimate the final quality and safety of foods. He has made major contributions to the development of the Food Safety Objective concept, which links food processing interventions to public health goals, and the use of microbial risk assessments to serve as the science base for the design of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems to ensure food safety. 

Prior to joining Exponent, Dr. Whiting was a Senior Scientist with the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (FDA, CFSAN). At FDA, he was a technical leader, advising senior managers and shaping the design of microbial risk assessments, including the Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment in ready-to-eat foods (2003). In addition, he contributed to developing harmonized international standards for food safety. He was an expert consultant to the Codex Committee for Food Hygiene, Working Group on Standards for L. monocytogenes and a member of team that conducted the Codex risk assessment on L. monocytogenes (2004). At FDA he also conducted research on microbial modeling and led a research group on microbial threat agents in foods. From 1977 to 1998, Dr. Whiting was a research food technologist at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Laboratory. There he conducted research on muscle biochemistry and meat quality and safety, including the functionality and microbial safety of reduced-salt meat products. Shifting to research to microbial pathogens, he advanced the conceptual approaches for modeling growth of foodborne pathogens that became the USDA’s Pathogen Modeling Program, including L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and directed research that led to the creation of survival models for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and probability-of-growth models for Clostridium botulinum. He began his research career as a fellow in the Department of Food Science at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. 

Dr. Whiting has published over 140 research papers, book chapters, risk assessments and other scientific works. He has lectured extensively in the U.S. and internationally on predictive microbiology and microbial risk assessments, and has participated in numerous workshops/training programs in this area. He has served on the Editorial Boards for Journal of Food Protection and the International Journal of Food Microbiology and is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Food Science. In recognition of his contributions to food science and food microbiology, Dr. Whiting was presented with the Food Safety Award by the National Center for Food Science and Technology and was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists in 2006. 

CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS

  • Ph.D., Food Science, Oregon State University, 1974
  • M.Sc., Food Science, University of British Columbia, 1970
  • B.S., Agriculture, Dairy, and Food Industries, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1968
  • Food Safety Award by the National Center for Food Science and Technology, 2007

    Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists, 2006

    HHS Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service as a member of the FDA Counter / Bioterrorism Preparedness Team, 2003

    FDA Group Recognition Award as a member of the Listeria monocytogenes Risk Assessment, 2001

    USDA Superior Service Award for efforts on the Microbial Food Safety team that developed the microbial pathogen models, 1993

    USDA, ARS Edminster Award, for Outstanding Research Associate Proposal in ARS, 1989

    Alpha Zeta, Agriculture Honors Fraternity, U. Wisconsin, 1966 

Publications

Chen Y, Ross WH, Whiting RC, Van Stelten A, Nightingale KK, Wiedmann M, Scott VN. Variation in Listeria monocytogenes dose response in relation to subtypes encoding a full-Length or truncated Internalin A. App. Environ. Microbiol 2011; 77:1171–1180.

Whiting RC. What risk assessments can tell us about setting criteria. Food Control 2011; 22:1525–1528.

Whiting RC (Co-author with ICMSF (International commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods). Microorganisms in Foods. Use of data for assessing process control and product acceptance. Chapter 2, Vol 8, Springer, NY, 2011.

Zwietering MH, Stewart CM, Whiting RC, and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Validation of control measures in a food chain using the FSO concept. Food Control 2010; 21:1716–1722.

Day JB, Whiting RC. Development of a macrophage cell culture method to isolate and enrich Francisella tularensis from food matrices for subsequent detection by real-time PCR. J. Food Protection 2009; 72:1156–1164.

Julien E, Boobis AR, Olin SS. The ILSI Research Foundation Threshold Working Group. The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: A cross-disciplinary mode-of-action based approach to examining dose-response and thresholds. Critical Reviews Food Science Nutrition 2009; 49:682–689.

Buchanan RL, Havelaar AH, Smith MA, Whiting RC, Julien, E. The key events dose-response framework: Its potential for application to foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. Critical Reviews Food Science Nutrition 2009; 49:718–728.

Whiting RC. Filling the toolbox: Performance Objectives (POs), Performance Criteria (PCs) and Food Safety Objectives (FSOs). Bulletin of the IDF No. 433/2009 – A Revolution in Food Safety Management, Chapter 2, pp. 11–15, 2009.

Whiting RC, Zwietering MH, Ross T, McDowell RM. Establishing the link between microbiological criteria and performance objectives. Bulletin of the IDF No. 433/2009 - A Revolution in Food Safety Management. Chapter 16, pp. 75–80, 2009.

Abou-Zeid KA, Oscar TP, Schwarz JF, Hashem FM, Whiting RC, Yoon K. Development and validation of a predictive model for Listeria monocytogenes Scott A as a function of temperature, pH, and commercial mixture of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol 2009; 19:718–126.

Day JB, Whiting RC. Development of a macrophage cell culture method to isolate and enrich Francisella tularensis from food matrices for subsequent detection by real-time PCR. J Food Protection 2009; 72:1156–1164.

Julien E, Boobis AR, Olin SS, The ILSI Research Foundation Threshold Working Group. The key events dose-response framework: A cross-disciplinary mode-of-action based approach to examining dose-response and thresholds. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009; 49: 682–689.

Buchanan RL, Havelaar AH, Smith MA, Whiting RC, Julien E. The key events dose-response framework: Its potential for application to foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009; 49:718–728.

Whiting RC. Filling the toolbox: Performance Objectives (POs), Performance Criteria (PCs) and Food Safety Objectives (FSOs). Bulletin of the IDF No. 433/2009 – A Revolution in Food Safety Management. Chapter 2, pp. 11–15. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 2009.

Whiting RC, Zwietering MH, Ross T, McDowell RM. Establishing the link between microbiological criteria and performance objectives. Bulletin of the IDF No. 433/2009 – A Revolution in Food Safety Management. Chapter 16, pp. 75–80. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 2009.

Abou-Zeid KA, Oscar TP, Schwarz JF, Hashem FM, Whiting RC, Yoon K. Development and validation of a predictive model for Listeria monocytogenes Scott A as a function of temperature, pH, and commercial mixture of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2009; 19:718–126.

Day JB, Trujillo S, Hao YY, Whiting RC. Thermal resistance of Francisella tularensis in infant formula and fruit juices. J Food Protection 2008; 71:2208–2212.

de Jesus AJ, Whiting RC. Modeling the interaction of the physiological state of the inoculum and CO2 atmosphere on the lag phase and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Protection 2008; 71:1915–1918.

Abou-Zeid KA, Yoon KS, Oscar TP, Schwarz JG, Hashem FM, Whiting RC. Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in broth as a function of temperature, pH, and potassium lactate and sodium diacetate concentrations. J Food Protect 2007; 70(11) 2620-2625.

Chen Y, Ross WH, Gray MJ, Wiedmann M, Whiting RC, Scott VN. Attributing risk to L. monocytogenes subgroups: Dose response in relation to genetic lineages. J Food Protect 2006; 69:335-344.

Sharma SK, Ferreira JL, Eblen BS, Whiting RC. Detection of type A, B, E and F Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins in foods using an amplified digoxigenin-labeled ELISA. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006; 72:1231-1238.

Whiting RC, Rainosek A, Buchanan RL, Miliotis M, LaBarre D, Long W, Ruple A, Schaub S. Determining the microbiological criteria for lot rejection from the performance objective or food safety objective. Int J Food Microbiol 2006; 110:263-267.

Whiting RC. Using risk assessments to set performance objectives and performance criteria that achieve a food safety objective. J Food Protect 2005; in press.

Sharma SK, Whiting RC. Methods for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin in foods. J Food Protect 2005; 68(6):1256-1263.

Edelson-Mammel SG, Whiting RC, Joseph SW, Buchanan RL. Effect of prior growth conditions on the thermal inactivation of 13 strains of Listeria monocytogenes in two heating menstrua. J Food Protect 2005; 68:168-172.

Sharma SK, Eblen BB, Bull RL, Burr D, Whiting RC. Evaluation of hand-held Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin detection kits for food analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005; 71:3935-3941.

de Jesus A, Whiting RC. Quantitative contamination and transfer of E. coli from foods by houseflies. Int J Food Microbiol 2004; 93:259-262.

Carrington D, Dennis SB, Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Putting a risk assessment model to work: Listeria monocytogenes ‘what if’ scenarios. J Am Food Drug Officials 2004; 68:519.

Yoon KS, Burnette CN, Abou-Zeid KA, Whiting RC. Control of growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A on smoked salmon by combined potassium lactate and sodium diacetate and freezing stress during refrigeration and frozen storage. J Food Protect 2004; 67(11):2465-2471.

Whiting RC. Exposure assessment of microbial food hazards. pp. 59-73. In: Food Safety Handbook, Schmidt RH, Rodrick GE (eds). Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2003.

de Jesus A, Whiting RC. Thermal inactivation, growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to three distinct genotypic lineages. J Food Protect 2003; 66:1611-1617.

Whiting RC, Golden MH. Modeling temperature, pH, NaCl, nitrite and lactate on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in broth. J Food Safety 2003; 23:61-74.

Schlosser WD, Ebel ED, Hope BK, Hogue AT, Whiting R, Morales R, McDowell R, Baker A. The Salmonella Enteriditis risk assessment. Chapter 29. pp. 281-292. In: Microbial Food Safety in Animal Agriculture. Torrence ME, Isaacson RE (eds), Iowa State Press, Ames, IA, 2003.

Yoon KS, Burnette CN, Whiting RC. The effects of pH and agitation on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in brain heart infusion broth containing combined potassium lactate and sodium diacetate during storage at 4°C or 10°C. J Food Protect 2003; 66:1469-1473.

FDA/FSIS. Quantitative assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eat foods. 2003.

Whiting RC. Controlling microorganisms. Food Technol. 2002; 56(12):30-56.

Whiting RC, Bagi LK. Modeling the lag phase of Listeria monocytogenes. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 73:291-295.

Whiting RC, Golden MH. Variation among E. coli O157:H7 strains relative to their growth, survival, thermal inactivation and toxin production in broth. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 75:127-133.

Hope BK, Baker AR, Ebel ED, Hogue AT, Schlosser WD, Whiting R, McDowell RM, Morales RA. An overview of the Salmonella Enteriditis risk assessment for shell eggs and egg products. J Risk Anal 2002; 22:203-218.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC, Golden MH. Modeling acid inactivation of foodborne microorganisms. Chapter 18, pp. 461-478. In: Control of Foodborne Microorganisms. Juneja VJ, Sofos J (eds). Marcel Dekker, NY, 2002.

CFSAN/USDA. Draft assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eat foods. Washington, DC, 2001.

Hitchins AD, Whiting RC. Food-borne Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment. Food Add Contam 2001; 18:1108-1117.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Predictive modeling and risk assessment. Chapter 40, pp. 728-739. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Second Edition. Doyle M, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ (eds), ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2001.

Whiting RC, Coleman M, Narrod C, Powell M, Roberts T, Schlosser WD. Risk assessment in the control of VTEC. Chapter 18. pp. 337-351. In: Verocytotoxigenic E. coli, Duffy G, Garvey P (eds), 2001.

Buchanan R, Dennis S, Miliotis M, Whiting R. Quantitative microbial risk assessment--FDA’s perspective. Nat Food Processors Assoc J 2000; 2(5):9-15.

Buchanan RL, Lindqvist R, Bender M, Carrington C, Dennis S, Hitchens A, Long W, Raybourne R, Ross M, Rouse T, Whiting R. FAO/WHO Risk Assessment of Listeriosis Associated with Ready-to-Eat Foods: Hazard Identification and Hazard Characterisation. MRA 00/01. FAO/WHO July 2000.

Duffy G, Riordan DCR, Sheridan JJ, Call JE, Whiting RC, Blair IS, McDowell DA. Effect of pH on survival, thermotolerance and verotoxin production of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during simulated fermentation and storage. J. Food Protection 2000; 63:12–18.

Riordan DCR, Duffy G, Sheridan, Whiting RC, Blair IS, McDowell DA. The effects of acid adaptation, product pH and heating on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pepperoni. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000; 66:1726-1729.

Whiting RC, Hogue A, Schlosser WD, Ebel ED, Morales R, Baker A, McDowell R. A risk assessment for Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. J Food Sci 2000; 65:864-869.

CFSAN, FDA. Structure and initial data survey for the risk assessment of the public health impact of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes. Washington, DC, 1999.

Whiting RC. Linking food microbial data to human health: Microbial risk assessment strategies. ILSI National Food Safety Initiative: Implications for microbial data collection, analysis, and application. J Food Protect 1999.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Predictive microbiology, HACCP and risk assessment. pp. 105-112. In: Proceedings, Predictive Microbiology Applied to Chilled Food Preservation. European Commission, 1999.

Alavi SH, Puri VM, Knabel SJ, Mohtar RH, Whiting RC. Development and validation of a dynamic growth model for Listeria monocytogenes in fluid whole milk. J Food Protect 1999; 62:170-176.

Duffy G, Riordan DCR, Sheridan JJ, Eblen BS, Whiting RC, Blair IS, McDowell DA. Differences in thermotolerance of various Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in a salami matrix. Food Microbiol 1999; 16:83-91.

Duffy G, Whiting RC, Sheridan JJ. The effect of pH, temperature and competitive microflora on the growth kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Food Microbiol 1999; 16:299-307.

Juneja VK, Whiting RC, Marks HM, Snyder OP. Predictive model for growth of Clostridium perfringens at temperatures applicable to cooling of cooked meat. Food Microbiol 1999; 16:335-349.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Risk assessment: A means of linking HACCP and public health. J Food Protect 1998; 61:1531-1534.

Whiting R, Buchanan R. Risk assessment--Its role within HACCP. pp. 48-52. In: Proceedings, Beef Safety Symposium, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, Greenwood Village, CO, 1998.

Whiting RC, Strobaugh TP. Expansion of time-to-turbidity model of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum to include spore numbers. Int J Food Microbiol 1998; 15:449-453.

Baker AR, Ebel ED, Hogue AT, McDowell RM, Morales RA, Schlosser WD, Whiting RC. Salmonella Enteritidis risk assessment. Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA, Washington, DC, 1998.

Kozempel MF, Annous B, Cook RD, Scullen OJ, Whiting RC. Inactivation of microorganisms with microwaves at reduced temperatures. J Food Protect 1998; 61:582-585.

Riordan DCR, Duffy G, Sheridan JJ, Eblen BS, Whiting RC, Blair IS, McDowell DA. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of pepperoni. J Food Protect 1998; 61:146-151.

Whiting RC. Development of microbial growth and survival models. Chapter 9, pp. 65-71. In: Seafood Safety, Processing and Biotechnology, Shahidi F, Jones Y, Kitts DD (eds). Technomic Pub, AG, Basel, Switzerland, 1997.

Whiting RC. Microbial database building: What have we learned? Food Technol 1997; 51:82-86.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Concepts in predictive microbiology. Proceedings, Reciprocal Meat Conf. Nat. Livestock Meat Bd. Chicago, IL, 1997.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Development of a quantitative risk assessment model for Salmonella enteritidis in pastuerized liquid eggs. Int J Food Microbiol 1997; 36:111-125.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Microbial risk assessment. pp. 53-62. In: Proceedings, 1996 Meat Industry Research Conference. American Meat Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC, 1997.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Predictive modeling. Chapter 40. pp. 728-739. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Doyle M, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ (eds). ASM Press, Washington, DC, 1997.

Whiting RC, Oriente JC. Time-to-turbidity model for non-proteolytic type B Clostridium botulinum. Int J Food Microbiol 1997; 36:49-60.

Baker A, Ebel E, Hogue A, McDowell R, Morales R, Schlosser W, Whiting R, Shell Eggs and Egg Products Risk Assessment Core Group. Parameter values for a risk assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs & egg products. USDA, FSIS, Washington, DC, 1997.

Buchanan RL, Damert WG, Whiting RC, van Schothorst M. Use of epidemiologic and microbial food survey data to estimate a purposefully conservative dose-response relationship between Listeria monocytogenes levels and the incidence of Listeriosis. J Food Protect 1997; 60:918-922.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC, Damert WC. When is simple good enough: A comparison of the Gompertz, Baranyi and three-phase linear models for fitting bacterial growth curves. Food Microbiol 1997; 14:313-326.

Kozempel MF, Scullen BJ, Cook RD, Whiting RC. Preliminary investigation using a batch flow process to determine bacteria destruction by microwave energy at low temperatures. Lebsn.-Wiss. u Technol 1997; 30:691-696.

Miller AJ, Whiting RC, Smith JL. Use of risk assessment to reduce Listeriosis incidence. Food Technol 1997; 51:100-103.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Risk assessment and predictive modeling. J Food Protect 1996; 48(Suppl):31-36.

Duffy G, Riordan DCR, Sheridan JJ, Whiting RC, Eblen BS. E. coli O157:H7 in fermented meats. Proc Int Conf Meat Sci Technol 1996; 42:4-5, A-2.

Whiting RC, Sackitey S, Calderone S, Morley C, Phillips JG. Model for the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in nongrowth environments. Int J Food Microbiol 1996; 31:231-243.

Whiting RC. Microbiological modeling. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1995; 35:467-494.

Fratamico PM, Whiting RC. The ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J to lyse gram-negative foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. J Food Protect 1995; 58:160-164.

Cygnarowicz-Provost M, Craig Jr. JC, Whiting RC. Computer control of a steam surface pasteurization process. J Food Engin 1995; 25:131-139.

Golden MH, Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Effect of sodium acetate or sodium propionate with EDTA and ascorbic acid on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Safe 1995; 15:53-65.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Pathogen Modeling Program, Instruction Manual, 1994.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Microbial modeling. IFT Scientific Status Summary. Food Technol 1994; 48(6):113-120.

Whiting RC, Masana MO. Listeria monocytogenes survival model validated in simulated uncooked-fermented meat products for effects of nitrite and pH. J Food Sci 1994; 59:760-762.

Buchanan RL, Golden MH, Whiting RC, Phillips JG, Smith JL. Non-thermal inactivation models for Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Sci 1994; 59:179-188.

Whiting RC. Development and use of models for microbial pathogens. Muscle Foods Division Newsletter, Institute of Food Technologists 2993; 19(3):2-3.

Whiting RC. Modeling bacterial survival in unfavorable environments. J Indust Microbiol 1993; 12:240-246.

Whiting RC, Call JE. Time of growth model for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Food Microbiol 1993; 10:295-301.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL A classification of models for predictive microbiology. Food Microbiol 1993; 10:175-177.

Buchanan RL, Golden MH, Whiting RC. Differentiation of the effects of pH and lactic or acetic acid concentration on the kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes inactivation. J Food Protect 1993; 56:474-478, 484.

Cygnarowicz-Provost M, Whiting RC, Craig Jr. JC. Steam surface pasteurization of beef frankfurters. J Food Sci 1993; 59:1-5.

Miller AJ, Call JE, Whiting RC. Comparison of organic acids for Clostridium botulinum control in an uncured turkey product. J Food Protect 1993; 56:958-962.

Whiting RC. Notes on reparameterization of bacterial growth curves—A reply to J. Baranyi and W.E. Garthright. Food Microbiol 1992; 9:5-6.

Jackson L, Whiting RC. Reduction of an Escherichai coli K12 population by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus under various in vitro conditions of parasite:host ratio, temperature or pH. J Food Protect 1992; 55(11):859-861, 870.

Whiting RC, Cygnarowicz-Provost M. A quantitative model for bacterial growth and decline. Food Microbiol 1992; 9:269-277.

Whiting RC. Reviewer’s questions to Gordon, A. and Barbut, S. Effect of chemical modifications on the microstructure of raw meat batters. Food Struct 1991; 10:241-253.

Whiting RC, Naftulin KA. Effect of headspace oxygen concentration on growth and toxin production by proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum. J Food Prot 1991; 55:23-27.

Whiting RC, Strange ED. Effect of individual muscles and connective tissue levels on the sensory and shear properties of restructured beef steaks. J Muscle Foods 1991; 2:49-56.

Huhtanen CN, Whiting RC, Miller AJ, Call JE. Qualitative correlation of the mouse neurotoxin and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determining Clostridium botulinum type A and B toxins. J Food Safety 1991; 12:119-127.

Strange ED, Whiting RC. Effects of added connective tissue on the sensory and mechanical properties of restructured beef steaks. Meat Sci 1990; 27:61-74.

Whiting RC, Miller AJ. Sausages. In: Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, Y.H. Hui (ed), John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1990.

Whiting RC, Strange ED. Effects of lactic acid on epimysial connective tissues of muscles used for restructured beef steaks. J Food Sci 1990; 55:859-860.

Whiting RC. Contributions of collagen to the properties of comminuted and restructured meat products. Reciprocal Meat Conference Proc 1989; 42:149-155.

Buchanan RL, Stahl HG, Whiting RC. Effects and interactions of temperature, pH, atmosphere, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Protect 1989; 52(12):844-851.

Miller AJ, Strange ED, Whiting RC. Improved tenderness of restructured beef steaks by a microbial collagenase derived from Vibrio B-30. J Food Sci 1989; 54:855-857.

Whiting RC. Ingredients and processing factors that control muscle protein functionality. Food Technol 1988; 42(4):104, 110-114, 210.

Strange ED, Whiting RC. Effect of temperature on collagen extractability and Kramer shear force of restructured beef. J Food Sci 1988; 53:1224-1225, 1233.

Whiting RC. Influence of various salts and water soluble compounds on water and fat exudation and gel strength of meat batters. J Food Sci 1987; 52:1130-1132, 1158.

Whiting RC. Influence of lipid composition on the water and fat exudation and gel strength of meat batters. J Food Sci 1987; 52:1126-1129.

Lee CM, Whiting RC. Texture and sensory evaluations of frankfurters made with different formulations and processes. J Food Sci 1987; 52:896-900.

Whiting RC, Strange ED, Cronlund AL, Miller AJ. Effect of connective tissues on the sensory textural scores and shear forces of restructured beef steaks. Proceedings, 33rd Int Congress of Meat Sci Technol 1987; 2:320-322.

Whiting RC, Benedict RC, Cangialosi M. Survival and outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes spores during curing and storage of corned beef with reduced levels of NaCl. J Food Protect 1986; 49:874-876.

Whiting RC, Benedict RC, Kunsch CA, Blalock D. Growth of Clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in cooked corned beef made with reduced levels of sodium chloride. J Food Sci 1985; 50:304-307.

Whiting RC. Addition of phosphates, proteins, and gums to reduced-salt frankfurter batters. J Food Sci 1984; 49:1355-1357.

Whiting RC. Stability and gel strength of frankfurter batters made with reduced NaCl. J Food Sci 1984; 49:1350-1354, 1362.

Whiting RC, Miller AJ. Evaluation of a food processor for making meat emulsions. J Food Sci 1984; 49:1222-1223, 1227.

Whiting RC, Benedict RC, Kunsch CA, Woychik JH. Effect of sodium chloride levels in frankfurters on the growth of Clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. J Food Sci 1984; 49:351-355.

Sebranek JG, Olson DG, Whiting RC, Benedict RC, Rust RE, Kraft AA, Woychik JH. Physiological role of dietary sodium in human health and implications of sodium reduction in muscle foods. Food Technol 1983; 37(7):51-54, 55-59.

Whiting RC, Jenkins RK. Comparison of rabbit, beef and chicken meats for functional properties and frankfurter processing. J Food Sci 1981; 46:1693-1696.

Whiting RC, Jenkins RK. Partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in frankfurter formulations. J Food Qual 1981; 4:259-269.

Whiting RC, Strange ED, Miller AJ, Benedict RC, Mozersky SM, Swift CE. Effects of electrical stimulation on the functional properties of lamb muscle. J Food Sci 1981; 46:484-487, 490.

Whiting RC. Calcium uptake by bovine muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum. J Food Sci 1980; 45:288-292.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Calcium uptake and ATPase activity by sarcoplasmic reticulum of red and white poultry muscles. J Food Sci 1978; 43:662665.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Influence of divalent cations on poultry meat emulsions and sausages. J Food Sci 1978; 43:312-314, 330.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Influence of zinc ions on postmortem and physical properties of chicken muscle. Can Inst Food Sci Technol J 1978; 11:62-65.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Water-extractable calcium and zinc in red and white chicken muscle during aging and thaw rigor. Can Inst Food Sci Technol J 1978; 11:59-61.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Thaw rigor induced isometric tension and shortening in broiler-type chicken muscles. J Food Sci 1975; 40:960-963.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Thermally induced isometric tension and shortening of pre- and postrigor chicken muscle. Can Inst Food Sci Technol J 1975; 8:168-169.

Whiting RC, Montgomery MW, Anglemier AF. Stability of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) muscle lysosomes and their relationship to rigor mortis. J Food Sci 1975; 40:854-857.

Whiting RC. Stability of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) muscle lysosomes. Dissertation. Oregon State University, 1974.

Whiting RC, Richards JF. Effect of radurization on shear resistance and fragmentation of chicken muscle. J Food Sci 1971; 36:752-755.

Whiting RC. Textural and color responses of chicken muscle to substerilizing doses of gamma irradiation. Thesis. University of British Columbia, 1970.

Whiting RC. Nutritional requirements and design of canning waste lagoons. University of Wisconsin, B.Sc. Special Problems, 1968.

Risk Assessments and White Papers


ILSI Research Foundation (International Life Sciences Institute). Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis—A risk-based approach. J Food Protect 2005; 68:1932-1994.

NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods). Considerations for establishing safety-based consume-by date labels for refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. J Food Protect 2005; 68:1761-1775.

WHO/FAO. Guidelines on exposure assessment of microbiological hazards in foods. FAO, Rome, 2004.

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Microbial Risk Assessment. Risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Interpretive summary. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series #4. FAO/WHO, Rome, 2004.

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Microbial Risk Assessment. Risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Technical report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series #5. FAO/WHO, Rome, 2004.

FDA/FSIS. Quantitative assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eat foods. September 2003.

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Risk Assessment of Microbial Hazards in Foods. Risk characterization of Salmonella spp. in eggs and broiler chickens and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. FAO Food and Nutrition paper #72. FAO, Rome, 2001.

Camire ME, Ausman LM, Decker E, Larick D, Nielsen SS, Patrick R, Peterson D, Regenstein J, Schjaller D, Solberg M, Whiting R, Zawel L. IFT research needs report: Diet and health research needs. Food Technol 2001; 55:189-191.

Baker AR, Ebel ED, Hogue AT, McDowell RM, Morales RA, Schlosser WD, Whiting RC. Salmonella Enteritidis risk assessment. Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA, FSIS, Washington, DC, 1998.

Shell Eggs and Egg Products Risk Assessment Core Group. Parameter values for a risk assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs and egg products. USDA, FSIS, Washington, DC. Baker A, Ebel E, Hogue A, McDowell R, Morales R, Schlosser W, Whiting R. FSIS, Washington, DC, 1997.

Book Chapters


Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Using risk assessment principles in an emerging paradigm for controlling the microbial safety of foods. Chapter 2, pp. 29–50. In: Microbial Risk Analysis in Foods. Schaffner DW (ed), ASM Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Progress in microbiological modeling and risk assessment. Chapter 43, pp. 953–969. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. Doyle MP, Beuchat LR (eds), ASM Press, Washington, D.C, 2007.

Schlosser WD, Ebel ED, Hope BK, Hogue AT, Whiting R, Morales R, McDowell R, Baker A. The Salmonella Enteriditis risk assessment. Chapter 29, pp. 281–292. In: Microbial Food Safety in Animal Agriculture. Torrence ME, Isaacson RE (eds), Iowa State Press, Ames, IA, 2003.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Predictive modeling and risk assessment. Chapter 40, pp. 728–739. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Second Edition. Doyle M, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ (eds), ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2001.

Whiting RC, Coleman M, Narrod C, Powell M, Roberts T, Schlosser WD. Risk assessment in the control of VTEC. Chapter 18, pp 337–351. In: Verocytotoxigenic E. coli. Duffy G, Garvey P (eds), 2001.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC, Golden MH. Modeling acid inactivation of foodborne microorganisms. Chapter 18, pp. 461–478. In: Control of Foodborne Microorganisms. Juneja VJ, Sofos J (eds), Marcel Dekker, NY, 2002.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Predictive modelling. Chapter 40, pp. 728–739. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Doyle M, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ (eds), ASM Press, Washington, DC, 1997.

Whiting RC. Development of microbial growth and survival models. Chapter 9, pp. 65–71. In: Seafood Safety, Processing and Biotechnology. Shahidi F, Jones Y, Kitts DD (eds), Technomic Pub., AG, Basle, Switzerland, 1997.

Published Abstracts

Buchanan RL, Destro MT, Whiting RC, Ross T. Case study: Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish: “Development of risk management metrics for food safety.” Background Paper 4. Prepared for Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Development of Practical Risk Management Strategies Based on Microbiological Risk Assessment Outputs Conference, Kiel, Germany, February 2006.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC, Walderhaug M. Annex 3. Examples of approaches for utilizing quantitative microbial risk assessment techniques to link the stringency of control measures to hygiene outcomes and metrics. For Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Microbial Risk Management, Rome, Italy, 2006.

FAO/WHO. Summary report of a workshop on re-examination of performance objectives as related to quantitative microbiological risk assessment. Presented to CCFH 38th Session, Houston, TX, 2006.

Whiting RC, Bagi L. Modeling the lag phase of Listeria monocytogenes. pp. 147-156. In: Predictive Modelling in Foods—Conference Proceedings. KULeuven/BioTeC, Belgium, Van Impe JFM, Bernaerts K (eds), 2000.

Whiting RC. A risk analysis overview. Proceedings, Comparative Risk in Food Safety: The Future Direction for Risk Analysis. Mather E (ed), The National Food Safety and Toxicology Center at Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 1998.

Whiting RC. The USDA pathogen modeling program—A user-friendly tool for making food safety decisions. pp. 136-145. Proceedings, 32nd National Meeting on Poultry Health & Processing, 1997.

Miller AJ, Bhaduri S, Call JE, Fratamico PM, Rajkowski KT, Palumbo SA, Whiting RC. From carcasses to molecules to computers: Addressing microbial food safety research needs. pp. Y-1 to Y-27. Proceedings, 1st Joint Meeting, U.S.-Japan Natural Resources Protein and Toxic Microoganisms Panels, Anchorage, AK, 1996.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Use of predictive microbial modeling in a HACCP program. pp. 127-141. In: Microbiologie Prédictive et HACCP. Amgar A (ed), ASEPT, Laval, France, 1992.

Miller AJ, Call JE, Whiting RC. Comparison of organic acids for Clostridium botulinum control in an uncured turkey product. Proceedings, 38th International Congress Meat Sci. Technol., Vol. 4, pp. 691–694, Clermont-Ferrand, France, August 23-28, 1992.

Miller AJ, Whiting RC, Menichillo DA, Naftulin KA. Modulation of Clostridium botulinum outgrowth and toxin production by blood fractions or modified atmospheres. Proceedings, 35th Int Cong Meat Sci Technol 1989; 2:302-307.

Whiting RC. Solute-protein interactions in a meat batter. Proceedings, Reciprocal Meat Conference 1989; 41:53-56.

Presentations: 2000–present (selected)

Whiting RC. Risk management—Factoring in different interventions and estimating total benefit. International Sprout Growers Association. 20th Annual convention, Chicago, IL, 2010.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Microbiological modeling. NASA, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA, 2010.

Whiting RC. Use of risk assessment modeling as a tool in developing sound food safety programs for microbial control. Using a Risk Based Approach, Performance Criteria and Defined Food Safety Objectives to Determine The “Right” Amount of Lethality for Your Process, IFT Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, 2010.

Whiting RC. Use of the Salmonella on almonds risk assessment to guide food safety decisions. Session S7, Government, Academic and Industry Collaborations to Advance the Development and Use of Microbiological Risk Assessments, IAFP Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, 2010.

Whiting RC. Use of risk assessments to guide food safety decisions and determine HACCP plans. Food Industry Microbiology Round Table, Plymouth, MN, 2010.

Whiting RC, Smith MA, Havelaar A, Buchanan RL, Julien E. Thresholds in the dose-response relationship for bacterial pathogens. International Life Science Institute Annual Meeting, Tucson AZ, 2009.

Whiting RC. What risk assessment can tell us about setting criteria. Controlling Listeria in ready-to-eat foods: Working towards global scientific consensus and harmonization. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009.

Whiting RC. ILSI Thresholds Project. Symposium at IAFP Annual Meeting, Grapevine, TX, 2009.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Reconciliation of the population risk with the risk per serving in determining food safety objectives. 6th International Conference Predictive Modeling in Foods, Washington, D.C., 2009.

Whiting RC. Opportunities and challenges for industry and government to utilize risk assessments for making food safety risk management decisions. Proceedings, Effective Use of Microbial Risk Assessment Food Safety Risk Management Decisions Symposium, Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, 2009.

Whiting RC. Hands-on workshop on microbial risk assessment modeling and interpretation. International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting, Columbus, OH, 2008.

Whiting RC. Regulatory perspectives to drive risk management options. In: New and Innovative Ways to Drive Risk-Based Management. International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting, Symposium Session S6, Columbus, OH, 2008.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. International microbiological criteria for foods: The emergence of risk-based standards and related metrics. U. Georgia, Center for Food Safety 2008 Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2008.

Whiting RC. Establishing the link between microbiological criteria and POs. International Symposium on Revolution in Food Safety Management, International Dairy Foods, WHO and FAO, Bali, Indonesia, February 13-15, 2008.

Whiting RC. Filling the toolbox: Performance objectives, performance criteria, and food safety objectives. International Symposium on Revolution in Food Safety Management, International Dairy Foods, WHO and FAO, Bali, Indonesia, February 13-15, 2008.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. International microbiological criteria for foods: The emergence of risk-based standards and related metrics. University of Georgia, Center for Food Safety Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2008.

Whiting RC, Wachsmuth K, Clarke R, Boclé J-C, Behari JR. FAO Risk Analysis Workshop II. Presented at Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Thalat, Laos; and Hanoi, Vietnam, November 2007.

Whiting RC. Fundamentals of predictive microbiology and risk assessment. Korean FDA, Seoul, Korea, October 26, 2007.

Whiting RC. Fundamentals of predictive microbiology and risk assessment. Veterinary School, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea, October 25, 2007.

Whiting RC. Microbial risk assessment in CCFH: Experience and perspectives. Workshop—National and International Activity for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, First Session on Codex Intergovernmental Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, Seoul, Korea, October 22, 2007.

Whiting RC. Fundamentals of predictive microbiology. Workshop 3, Predictive Microbiology as a HACCP Validation and Support Tool. Part of International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 7, 2007.

Whiting RC. Regulatory perspective on the use of predictive microbiology—FDA perspective. Workshop 3, Predictive Microbiology as a HACCP Validation and Support Tool. Part of International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 7, 2007.

Whiting RC. Case Study, Example 3: Use of predictive models in L. monocytogenes smoked finfish risk assessment. Workshop 3, Predictive Microbiology as a HACCP Validation and Support Tool. Part of International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, July 7, 2007.

Whiting RC. Factors influencing the performance of sampling plans, microbiological criterion. Workshop on the Role of Testing in the Safety of Fresh Produce, NCFST, Oak Lawn, IL, May 30, 2007.

Whiting RC. Application of risk assessment to inform risk management and food process control. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, February 26, 2007.

Whiting RC. Setting ALOPs, food safety objectives and performance objectives. Commercial Sterility Working Group, NCFST, February 5, 2007.

Whiting RC. Setting performance objectives and food safety objectives. P-OCRA Workshop, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, November 27-December 1, 2006.

Whiting RC. Microbiological modeling. FPA Internet Workshop, Washington, DC, July 20, 2006.

Whiting RC. Food safety objectives. Session 059. Symposium on Conceptual and Mathematical Description of the Food Safety Objectives, IFT Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, June 27, 2006.

Whiting RC. Microbial dose-response. Session: Microorganism Thresholds: Presentations and Panel Discussion. FDA Office of Food Additive Safety Grand Rounds on Crossing the Thresholds of Tomorrow, June 8, 2006.

Whiting RC. Listeria risk assessment. Lecture for JIFSAN Distant Learning Course in Risk Assessment, June 5, 2006.

Whiting RC. Clostridium botulinum research at FDA, CFSAN. Briefing for the National Counterterrorism Center Working Group on C. botulinum, NCTC, McLean, VA, March 15, 2006.

Whiting RC. Approaches for deriving performance objectives and performance criteria from a food safety objective. Symposium on Relating Microbiological Testing and Microbiological Criteria to Public Health Goals. ICMSF, RAC, ILSI, IAFP and IFT, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC, October 31-November 1, 2005.

Whiting RC. Risk-based approach to microbial food safety. Illinois Institute of Technology-NCFST Graduate Seminar, Summit Agro, IL September 16, 2008.

Whiting RC. Critique of the food handling practices model. RAC Workshop, College Park, MD, August 18, 2005.

Whiting RC, Schaffner D. Basic statistical concepts. IAFP workshop on Statistics as a tool for the microbial evaluation of foods, Baltimore, MD, August 12, 2005.

Whiting RC. Risk-based approach to establishing microbiological criteria. JIFSAN Telecommunication Course on Risk Assessment (by Internet), June 6, 2005.

Whiting RC. Microbial risk assessment process. National Trends in Food Safety and Quality. University of Florida (by telephone), May 17, 2005.

Whiting RC. Application of risk assessment in RTE foods. Process validation and process control for RTE foods workshop. Alkar-RapidPak, Lodi, WI, May 3-4, 2005.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL. Setting a microbiological criteria. CCFH Working Group on control of Listeria monocytogenes, Berlin, Germany, September 21, 2004.

Whiting RC. How risk assessors and risk managers have utilized available data to support decision making, Listria and Vibrio risk assessment examples. Presented at RAC Symposium, College Park, MD, September 14, 2004.

Whiting RC. Toward a classification of ready-to-eat foods according to risk or other uses of risk assessment in managing risk. Listeria monocytogenes and Risk Analysis, ASEPT, Laval, France, March 17-18, 2004.

Whiting RC. The US FDA/FSIS quantitative risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Listeria monocytogenes and Risk Analysis, ASEPT, Laval, France, March 17-18, 2004.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Interactions between risk assessors and risk managers. Listeria monocytogenes and Risk Analysis, ASEPT, Laval, France, March 17-18, 2004.

Buchanan RL, Whiting RC. Overview of risk management at the national and international level including appropriate level of protection, food safety objective, performance objectives, performance criteria. Listeria monocytogenes and Risk Analysis, ASEPT, Laval, France, March 17-18, 2004.

Whiting RC, Raybourne R. Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes virulence variability using animal models and its use in dose-response relationships. Listeria monocytogenes and Risk Analysis, ASEPT, Laval, France, March 17-18, 2004.

Whiting RC. Perspectives on pathogen performance standards. Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, December 10, 2003.

Whiting RC. Data and modeling requirements for foodborne microbial risk assessments. AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 20, 2003.

Whiting RC. Quantitative assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eat foods. HHS/FDA National Public Affairs Conference, Nashville, TN, November 19, 2003.

Whiting RC. Relative risk ranking assessment for L. monocytogenes. IFT International Food Safety and Quality Conference, Orlando, FL, November 5-7, 2003.

Whiting RC. Risk assessment. Seafood Science and Technological Society Meeting, Biloxi, MS, November 3-6, 2003.

Whiting RC, Eblen S. USFDA “New” risk assessment. Refrigerated Foods Association Technical Seminar, Crystal City, VA, September 9, 2003.

Whiting RC. Principles for determining if a product requires shelf life dating. Invited presentation in ILSI Symposium at the IAFP Annual Meeting, Symposium on Science-based Shelf Life Dating of Ready-to-Eat Refrigerated Foods. International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, August 13, 2003.

Whiting RC, Schaffner D. A hands-on course in quantitative microbial risk assessment. Workshop II. International Association for Food Protection, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, August 8-9, 2003.

Whiting RC. Analysis of Clostridium botulinum toxin in food matrices using ELISA technology. Bilateral U.S.-Israel Conference of Science and Technology Based Countermeasures to Foodborne Terrorism, Shepherdstown, WV, July 2, 2003.

Whiting RC, Bagi L. Time-temperature controls: Scientific Status. Lag phase of Listeria monocytogenes. Atlantic Fisheries Technology Society and Seafood Science and Technology Society of the Americas, Orlando, FL, October 10, 2002.

Whiting RC, Eblen S. Risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes. Refrigerated Foods Association, Crystal City, VA, September 5, 2002.

Whiting RC. Ranking of microbiological risks. In Symposium on Customized Approaches to Microbiological Risk Assessment, International Association of Food Protection, San Diego, CA, July 3, 2002.

Whiting RC, Buchanan RL, Lindqvist, R. Hazard characterization of Listeria monocytogenes. Society for Risk Analysis Workshop, Seattle, WA, December 3, 2001.

Whiting RC. Data modeling tools used in the FDA/FSIS L. monocytogenes risk assessment. Society for Risk Analysis Workshop, Seattle, WA, December 2, 2001.

Whiting RC. FDA Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment. In: Session on Risk Assessment, Fourth World Fish Inspection & Quality Control Congress, Vancouver, BC, October 25, 2001.

Whiting RC. Microbial risk assessmentBFDA/FSIS Listeria monocytogenes. Food Science Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, October 23, 2001.

Whiting RC. Microbial food safety risk assessment. Information Resources for Policy Analysis, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC, October 17, 2001.

Whiting RC. Current FDA CFSAN approaches to susceptibility in microbial risk assessment. George Washington University Medical Center, Center for Risk Science and Public Health, Washington, DC, July 2627, 2001.

Whiting RC. Draft risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in RTE foods. EU-US Food Safety Research Workshop, Brussels, Belgium, July 19, 2001.

Whiting RC. Draft risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in RTE foods. Second ARS-BBSRC Workshop on Food Safety, Norwich, UK, July 16, 2001.

Whiting RC. FDA/FSIS L. monocytogenes risk assessment. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, May 16, 2001.

Whiting RC. Microbial risk assessment, Cornell University, Department of Food Science, Ithaca, NY, April 17, 2001.

Whiting RC, Gombas K. FDA & FSIS Listeria risk assessment and action plan. Washington State Food Safety Advisory Committee, Olympia, WA, March 22, 2001.

Whiting RC. FDA risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes. Presentation and panel discussions. 21st Annual Conference and Exhibition, Refrigerated Foods Association, Nashville, TN, March 2, 2001.

Whiting RC. Dose-response in microbial risk assessment. 2001 ILSI Annual Meeting, Montego Bay, Jamaica, January 22, 2001.

Whiting RC. Experiences with microbial risk assessments. USDA Graduate School, Risk Assessment Course, January 19, 2001.

Whiting RC, Miliotis MM. FDA/FSIS Listeria monocytogenes Risk Assessment. The Ninth International Symposium of Toxic Micro-organisms. Tokyo, Japan. March 12-13, 2002.

Whiting RC. Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment. American Refrigerated Foods Association, Crystal City, VA, September 21, 2000.

Whiting RC, Bagi L. Modeling the lag phase of Listeria monocytogenes. Third International Conference on Predictive Modeling, Leuven, Belgium, September 13, 2000.

Whiting RC. Lessons for the Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment. Third International Conference on Predictive Modeling, Leuven, Belgium, September 13, 2000.

Whiting RC. Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment. American Dairy Science Association, Baltimore, MD, July 24, 2000.

Whiting RC. Microbial modeling/risk assessment. Food-Borne Pathogens 2000: Perspectives & Interventions, SIM, Crystal City, VA, April 16-19, 2000.

Whiting RC. Listeria monocytogenes risk assessment. American Frozen Foods Institute, Washington, DC, March 22, 2000.

Whiting RC. Listeria risk assessment. FDA Science Forum 2000, Washington, DC, February 15, 2000.

Patents

U.S. Patent Number 5,171,591: Control or elimination of undesirable bacteria using parasitic Bdellovibrio bacteria, December 15, 1992 (Serial # 07/694,602).

Prior Experience

Senior Scientist, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1998–2008

Research Food Technologist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1977–1998 Research Fellow, Food Science Department, University of British Columbia, 1974–1977

Graduate Student, Food Science Department, Oregon State University, 1970–1974

Graduate Student, Food Science Department, University of British Columbia, 1969–1970

Plant Quality Control Manager, Oconomowoc Canning Co., 1967, 1968 

Professional Affiliations

Institute of Food Technologists, 1969–present

  • Philadelphia Section: Section newsletter editor, 1983–1987; elected to National Council, 1985–1989; elected Secretary, 1987, 1988; elected Section Chairman, 1993–1994 
  • National: Elected Muscle Food Division Director, 1992–1994; Nomination Committee for Food Microbiology Division, 1992; Research Committee, 1998; Associate Editor for Reviews and New Concepts, J Food Science, 2000–present; Elected Fellow, 2006

International Association for Food Protection (formerly IAMFES), 1997–present

Editorial Board for J. Food Protection

Chair, Risk Analysis Professional Development Group, 2002–2004

Society for Risk Analysis, 1998–present

Project Experience

Co-lead for the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment on Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. This was the first risk assessment on foodborne microbial pathogens. Among many objectives, it evaluated the relative importance of different storage temperatures on egg safety. Publically presented and defended the risk assessment.

Technical leader for the FDA risk assessment that estimated the relative importance of different ready-to-eat foods in leading to listeriosis. It clarified the importance of L. monocytogenes growth in the foods and evaluated the susceptibilities of different consumer populations. This risk assessment provided the scientific basis for the current FDA Compliance Policy Guide proposal. Presented risk assessment to Agency officials, industry representatives, and the public.

Served on Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Microbial Risk Assessment. This committee planned, conducted, and published the FAO/WHO risk assessment on L. monoctyogenes that evaluated the consequences of whether a food that did or did not support growth and determined the numbers of the pathogen likely to lead to listeriosis.

Was a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Focused on developing concepts in microbial risk assessment and regulation of L. monocytogenes.

Was the technical lead for FDA risk assessment on hot- and cold-smoked seafood that evaluated the impact of different processing steps and potential mitigations on the risk of listeriosis. To be released in 2009, this risk assessment modeled product pathways and estimated the improvement in the risk per serving to consumers that would result from various processing changes.

Developed the microbiological modeling for FDA risk assessment on soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert). This ongoing risk assessment is evaluating the impact that changes in the processing and storage would have on public health from L. monocytogenes.

Participated in the USDA/FSIS NACMCF Committee (National Advisory Committee for Microbiological Criteria for Foods) that evaluated the impact of date marking on microbiological safety.


CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS

  • Ph.D., Food Science, Oregon State University, 1974
  • M.Sc., Food Science, University of British Columbia, 1970
  • B.S., Agriculture, Dairy, and Food Industries, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1968
  • Food Safety Award by the National Center for Food Science and Technology, 2007

    Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists, 2006

    HHS Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service as a member of the FDA Counter / Bioterrorism Preparedness Team, 2003

    FDA Group Recognition Award as a member of the Listeria monocytogenes Risk Assessment, 2001

    USDA Superior Service Award for efforts on the Microbial Food Safety team that developed the microbial pathogen models, 1993

    USDA, ARS Edminster Award, for Outstanding Research Associate Proposal in ARS, 1989

    Alpha Zeta, Agriculture Honors Fraternity, U. Wisconsin, 1966