Welding, brazing, and soldering are required in numerous products and structures across a variety of industries including: heavy equipment manufacturing, biomedical devices, automotive, aerospace, oil and gas, food processing, building structures and construction, ships and offshore structures, electronics, batteries, and heat exchangers.  Exponent leverages its multidisciplinary experience in these industries as well as its technical expertise in areas such as material science, metallurgy, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and thermal sciences, to assist clients in a variety of ways related to joining, including process selection, joint design, joint assessment, failure analysis, code compliance, non-destructive evaluation (NDE), and process safety and quality control.

Our licensed Professional Engineers (PE), certified welding inspectors (CWI), and licensed NDE technicians provide clients with support across the spectrum of welding and joining challenges. We have expertise related to code compliance which often includes weld and joint inspection, mechanical testing, and evaluation of contract documents such as welding procedure specifications (WPS), procedure qualification record (PQR), and welder performance qualification (WPQ).  Furthermore, Exponent staff has significant experience conducting failure investigations that involve welds, and in identification of relevant potential failure modes and defects in joints.  We also provide potential mitigation strategies for joining issues. 

Beyond the engineering side of welding and joining, Exponent also provides services in areas related to welding safety. For example, Exponent’s health scientists have evaluated the health effects of welding fumes on workers, and engineers have consulted on issues related to potential and actual fires and explosions related to welding activities. Welding safety also includes addressing physical, electrical, radiation, pressure, and other hazards in the welding environment.

Exponent’s welding, brazing, and soldering services include:

  • Process and joint design
    • Joining method selection
      • Arc Welding (TIG or GTAW, MIG or GMAW, SMAW, etc.)
      • Resistance welding 
      • Friction welding
      • Laser welding
      • Electron beam welding
      • Ultrasonic welding
      • Brazing
      • Soldering  
    • Material selection
      • Filler metals
      • Braze alloys
      • Solder alloys
      • Flux
      • Shielding gases
    • Parameters selection
      • Current and voltage for arc welding methods
      • Time and temperature for soldering and brazing
  • Metallurgical characterization and assessment
    • Mechanical property testing  (strength, hardness, and fatigue)
    • Electrical properties
    • Corrosion resistance and chemical properties
    • Extent of fusion
    • Defect identification (porosity, inclusions, and cracks)
    • Microstructural evaluation
  • Defect and failure analysis
    • Hot cracking susceptibility
    • Element segregation
    • Hydrogen cracking
    • Stress relief cracking
    • Incomplete fusion
    • Cosmetic issues
    • Fatigue cracking
    • Overload fracture
    • Porosity
  • Welding code compliance consulting
    • American Welding Society (AWS) 
    • American Petroleum Institute (API)
    • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)
    • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • Non-destructive evaluation (NDE)
    • Radiography
    • Computed tomography (CT)
    • Liquid dye Penetrant
    • Magnetic particle
    • Ultrasonic
  • Quality control and process audit
  • Process safety