Terrestrial Biology

Terrestrial biology encompasses any environmental issue that occurs on land, including spills, permitting, construction, wildlife, and restoration. Most of Exponent’s terrestrial biology work supports ecological assessments and restoration activities. Such assessments are technical tools that can offer real value to environmental management decision-makers, either reactively after an environmental incident or proactively for due-diligence and environmental liability assessments. Information gained during an ecological assessment can be used to support key management decisions in the areas of regulatory and permit compliance, product stewardship, and emerging issues.

Exponent's Ecological & Biological Sciences (EcoSciences) staff have expertise in a variety of disciplines that are relevant to ecological assessment, including aquatic and terrestrial biology, ecology, toxicology, endangered species, invasive species, database management, geographic information systems (GIS), and statistics. Exponent’s EcoSciences staff conduct ecological assessments to evaluate impacts from chemicals, petrochemicals, and consumer and industrial products, as well as effects on ecosystems from development and remedial activities.


Exponent provides the following areas of technical expertise in terrestrial biology: 

  • Technical review and support for litigation, negotiations, and policy development
  • Environmental impact assessments (EIS/EA) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 
  • Species consultations and biological assessments under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act 
  • Habitat equivalency analyses (HEA) for natural resource damage assessments (NRDA) 
  • Evaluation of wildlife exposure and impacts (i.e., contaminants and physical stressors) 
  • Field studies to measure contaminants in soils, plants, and animals
  • Floral and faunal inventories
  • Habitat mapping, including wetlands delineation 
  • Habitat assessments and surveys for sensitive species 
  • Environmental DNA monitoring for endangered or invasive species
  • Ecosystem restoration including design, implementation, and monitoring 
  • Bioavailability and biomonitoring studies 
  • Resource economics evaluations
  • Stewardship cost analyses under different land use scenarios 
  • Development of land stewardship plans 
  • Avian biology and health assessments
  • Evaluation and support for bed bug infestations
  • Entomological analysis of infested food products
  • Forest fire analysis for risk or culpability
  • Invasive species consultations and biological assessments 
  • Contaminant exposure models and food web evaluations 
  • Spatial distribution analysis
  • Biostatistics
  • Database management
  • Geographic information systems (GIS) analysis.



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