Dr. Palmquist has a strong interdisciplinary background in environmental toxicology, biology, and ecology. She has technical expertise in ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) at large complex sites in multiple states. She is experienced in assessing risks of aqueous and sediment-associated chemicals, such as PAHs, metals, hydrophobic insecticides, and PCBs, to aquatic taxa, specifically benthic invertebrates and fish. As part of this, Dr. Palmquist has used innovative approaches to define baseline conditions and quantify reductions in ecological services. She also has significant work experience with power company clients, including conducting ecological assessments of proposed submarine cable routes focusing on the potential impacts on resident fish and invertebrates, including threatened and endangered species. She has designed, implemented, and evaluated both laboratory and field studies to determine potential effects of contaminants on aquatic organisms and the health of aquatic community structure.
Dr. Palmquist also has extensive work experience in the field of pesticide toxicity and risk to non-target organisms. She has conducted pesticide registration work in both the United States and in the European Union, and has authored several papers on the susceptibility of non-target invertebrates to insecticides. In addition, she has technical experience in RCRA investigations, including regulatory compliance and remediation. Dr. Palmquist has provided technical support in a litigation context for energy, petrochemical, agrochemical, manufacturing, and financial industry clients at sites located in Arkansas, California, Florida, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, and Michigan, as well as in Canada.
CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS
- Ph.D., Toxicology, Oregon State University, 2007
- B.S., Entomology, Washington State University, 2003
- B.A., Communications, Washington State University, 2003
LICENSES & CERTIFICATIONS
OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 40-hour certification
K. Palmquist and T.L. Deardorff. 2016. The effects of wildfire on stream ecosystems in the western United States: magnitude, persistence and factors affecting recovery. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress; pp. 389-396.
Deardorff, T.L., K. Palmquist, P.J. Shaller, and P.L. Shrestha. 2016. Western Wildfires and the Mississippi Delta: Lessons Learned About Ecosystem Management from Attempts to Control Mother Nature. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress; pp. 372-378.
N. Gard and K. Palmquist. 2016. Wildfire Litigation in the Western United States: Technical Challenges in Assessment of Natural Resource Damages. ABA Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources. Superfund and Natural Resource Damages Litigation Newsletter. Vol. 11. No. 2
Palmquist K, Fairbrother A, Salatas J. Pyrethroid insecticides: Use, environmental fate, and ecotoxicology. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012.
Palmquist KR, Fairbrother A, Salatas J, Guiney PD. Environmental fate of pyrethroids in urban and suburban stream sediments and the appropriateness of Hyalella azteca model in determining ecological risk. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 2011; 7(3):325–335.
Johnson KR, Jepson PC, and Jenkins JJ. Esfenvalerate-induced case-abandonment adversely impacts Brachycentrus americanus behavior and survival. Environ Toxicol Chem 2008; 27 (2):397–403.
Johnson JD, Johnson KR. Hybrid poplar genotype affects attack incidence by the Poplar-and-Willow Borer (Cyptorhynchus lapathi). West J Appl For 2003; 18: 276–280.
Duncan J, Hinchcliffe A, Palmquist K. Lot 5: Evidence of potential long term effects in (aquatic and terrestrial) invertebrates after short term pulsed exposure. Exponent report prepared for European Food Safety Authority, August 2009.
Brown K, Tomlinson J, Duncan J, Hinchcliffe A, Palmquist K. Lot 4 : Critical comparison of available and potential higher tier testing approaches for the risk assessment of plant protection products, considering at least field and semi-field experimental designs, extrapolation from dose-response relationships, and increased dosages (aquatic and terrestrial). Exponent report prepared for European Food Safety Authority, August 2009.
Palmquist KR. Big Data or Bad Data? Potential Concerns with Using Publicly Available Monitoring Data to Define Ecological Baseline Before a Fire, at the Wildland Fire Litigation 12th Annual Conference, Coronado, CA, April 27-29, 2018.
Palmquist KR, Morrison AM, Edwards M. Addressing White Hat Bias – Lessons from Environmental Litigation, at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) 38th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, November 12-16, 2017.
Palmquist KR. Overcoming the Pitfalls of Published Science Practical Strategies for Litigation, at the Wildland Fire Litigation 11th Annual Conference, Coronado, CA, April 21-23, 2017.
Palmquist, K. and T.L. Deardorff. 2016. The Effects of Wildfire on Stream Ecosystems in the Western United States: Magnitude, Persistence and Factors Affecting Recovery. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. Palm Beach, FL.
Deardorff, T.L., K. Palmquist, P.J. Shaller and P.L. Shrestha. 2016. Western Wildfires and the Mississippi Delta: Lessons Learned About Ecosystem Management from Attempts to Control Mother Nature. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. Palm Beach, FL.
Kashuba R, Menzie C, Cerreto K, Palmquist K, Kessel C. Challenges in deriving causal relationships from field observational data: A case study in West Virginia headwaters. Presented at the Session: Bayesian Networks and Other Probabilistic Methods Applied to Ecological Risk, at the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) 2014 Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, December 10, 2014.
Kashuba R, Cerreto K, Palmquist K, Kessel C, Menzie C. Cautions for deriving causal relationships and water quality benchmarks from field observational data: A case study in West Virginia headwaters. Presented at the Session: Assessing Contaminant Effects in Multi-stress Ecosystems, at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 9–13, 2014.
Palmquist K, Fairbrother A, Salatas J, Guiney P. Environmental fate of pyrethroids in urban stream sediments and the appropriateness of Hyalella azteca model in determining ecological risk. Presented at the Session: Pyrethroids in the environment – Part 3, at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 31st Annual Meeting, Portland, OR, November 7–11, 2010.
Palmquist KR, Jenkins JJ, Jepson PC. Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure. Presented at the Pacific Branch Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Meeting and at the North American Benthological Society Meeting, 2008.
Johnson KR, Jenkins JJ, Jepson PC. Clutch morphology and the timing of exposure impact the susceptibility of aquatic insect eggs to esfenvalerate. Presented at the Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 28th Annual Meeting, 2007.
Johnson KR, Jenkins JJ, Jepson PC. Use of multiple life stages in assessing Cinygmula sp. mayfly nymph sensitivity to esfenvalerate. Presented at the Pacific Northwest Branch Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Meeting, Port Townsend, WA and presented at the Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America 91st Annual Meeting, Portland, OR, 2007.
Johnson KR. Pesticide sub-lethal effects in non-target aquatic organisms. Presented at Washington State University Pesticide Re-certification short courses, Lacey & Vancouver, WA, 2007.
Johnson KR, Jenkins JJ, P.C. Jepson. Esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos differentially affect native Pacific Northwest aquatic insects. Presented at the American Chemical Society 232nd Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 2006.
Johnson KR, Jenkins JJ, Jepson PC. Life stage influences Pacific Northwest aquatic insect susceptibility to esfenvalerate. Presented at the North American Benthological Society 54th Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AK, 2006.
Johnson KR, Jenkins JJ, Jepson PC. Esfenvalerate induces case-leaving in the Pacific Northwest caddisfly Brachycentrus americanus. Presented at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, 2005.
Society of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology (current member)
CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems)
Extensive experience in Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA) conducted in both marine and freshwater environments, focusing on injury to benthic invertebrates and demersal and pelagic fish.
Assessed impacts to marine benthic invertebrate communities from both physical and chemical stressors at shipyard sites in San Diego, California. Considered a number of benthic communityindices
Conducted aquatic impact assessment for operations of a proposed DC submarine transmission cable in Lake Champlain. Assessment utilized site-specific magnetic field calculations and focused on a number of species of interest, including fish of special concern to the states of Vermont and New York, and considered potential impacts of cable operation on species’ behavior and life history, including key anadromous species.
Assessed potential operating impacts of a DC transmission line with a proposed route through Lake Erie, with particular attention to the potential effects on endangered and anadromous fish species. Effects on physiological homeostasis, behavior, development and migration were addressed and assessed for each species.
Reviewed possible ecological impacts of operating submarine AC cables on coastal and marine species in support of the permitting and review process for an offshore wind facility in the New England area. Assessment included potential behavioral and population-level impacts to benthic resources, resident finfish species, sharks and rays, and marine mammals and sea turtles.
Evaluated available invertebrate community data associated with an NRDA site in the Midwest United States, and provided an independent re-analysis of the data. This evaluation incorporated a number of variables, including physio-chemical characteristics, microhabitat characteristics, and watershed-scale data.
Contributed to an NRDA evaluation located at an East Coast refinery site. This included review of benthic invertebrate and fish community data, and a comparison to historical biological data collected at multiple time points at the same site to assess long-term population trends.
Reviewed historical benthic invertebrate data collected over decades at a large watershed in the Midwest United States. Performed evaluation of data reliability and determined potential long-term population trends.
Prepared sampling and analysis plans as part of a multi-phase site investigation for two remote sites with former mining and smelting activities. Key sampling efforts addressed soil, sediment, and surface water chemistry data, as well as freshwater macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance.
Evaluated the use and effects of a rodenticide in controlling rodent pests in urban and rural environments. Assessment included consideration of behavioral changes following exposure, efficacy of different types of products, and consideration ofd risks to non-target organisms.
Oversaw and managed the field sampling associated with a complex lead-contaminated site in California. This required coordination and cooperation with outside consultants, management of large amounts of data (200+ samples per day), and on-site lead analysis via X-Ray Fluorescence. Also, performed on-site evaluation of day-to-day conditions and adapted sampling program accordingly.
Planned and managed field sampling at a lead-contaminated site in Oregon on a short time-frame. Sampled matrices included surface water, soil and sediment. In addition, conducted habitat assessments along ~2 miles of aquatic ditch environment as a component of the project.
Prepared sampling and analysis plans and reviewed existing documentation for a number of infrastructure development projects in remote Latin American countries. This included a review of the available biological data to determine potential impacts to endangered species, and an evaluation of the logistic involved with biological sampling in remote areas.
Designed a preliminary ecological risk assessment plan for a landfill site in Washington State. Evaluated and selected appropriate ecological receptors and determined proximity of the site in relation to threatened/endangered species habitats.
Provided expertise in supporting agrochemical client in responding to USEPA statements regarding the re-registration requirements for a number of commercially-marketed herbicides. Performed review of available ecotoxicological data in the literature and laboratory results from client-provided reports.
Worked with Exponent’s Harrogate, UK office and assisted in the drafting of European Union pesticide registration dossiers for a number of international clients. As a part of this, preformed a number of targeted risk assessments for birds, aquatic organisms, terrestrial invertebrates, and non-target plants, incorporating country-specific requirements.
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