At Exponent, Ms. Duncan specializes in environmental compliance and cost allocation and assessment. She has experience in environmental health and safety, exposure assessment, chemical fate and transport, and solid waste and wastewater permitting. Ms. Duncan has evaluated remediation and compliance efforts under federal (e.g., CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, SDWA) and state regulations for sites with soil, sediment, groundwater, and surface water contamination. Projects have included numerous organic and inorganic contaminants. Ms. Duncan has conducted gap assessments for international environmental regulations and standards. This work resulted in proposing new regulatory frameworks and designing/ conducting training modules for government agency personnel. She has evaluated numerous domestic and international environmental regulations and standards. Ms. Duncan also manages litigation projects, supporting strategy development and expert witness preparation.
At the University of Washington, she is performing Ph.D. dissertation research to evaluate laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for use in quantifying cadmium, zinc, and gadolinium in biological media as a biomonitoring tool. Ms. Duncan’s research includes dosing study design, exposure assessment, time series analysis, internal standardization, and baseline correction. Previous graduate research compared groundwater quality indicators to the density of unconventional gas wells drilled into the Marcellus Shale. Influence from private well and gas well characteristics were considered as were potential geographic, geologic, hydrologic, climate, and land use aspects.
CREDENTIALS & PROFESSIONAL HONORS
- M.S., Environmental Heath, University of Washington, 2016
- B.S., Biology, Seattle University, 2007
LICENSES & CERTIFICATIONS
40-Hour Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response – HAZWOPER, 2008
8-Hour OSHA Annual Refresher, 2009–2019
Cooper, E., M. Blanco, B. Duncan, R. Shaffer, J. Kissel. 2019. Potential contribution of dermal pathways to nicotine exposure in children residing in smoking households (TU-PO-47). International Society of Exposure Science and International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, August 18–22, 2019, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Duncan, B, G.D. Onstad, S.J. Trufan, P.M. Rabinowitz. 2019. Comparison of water quality indicators and the density of unconventional gas wells in Southwestern Pennsylvania. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress: Groundwater, Sustainability, Hydro-Climate/Climate Change, and Environmental Engineering, May 19–23, 2019, Pittsburgh, PA.
Duncan B, Onstad G, Rabinowitz P. Temporal and spatial analysis of groundwater quality and unconventional gas well density in Washington County, Pennsylvania (Preliminary Analysis). Semiahmoo Annual Occupational, Environmental and Public Health Conference, Blaine, WA, 2016.
Duncan B, Belisle M. Big picture strategies for big data analysis. SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting. Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2014.
Johns MW, Edwards ME, Duncan BR, Harney J, Thompson T, Atlas RM. Evaluation of relationships among fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, and analytical chemistry measurements of the water column as indicators of MC252 oil in the Gulf of Mexico. SETAC North America 33rd Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, November 2011.
Air & Waste Management Association
American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists
American Bar Association (associate member)
American Society of Civil Engineers (affiliate member)
National Association of Environmental Professionals
Oil and Gas
Developed comprehensive strategy to perform cost assessment for remediation efforts at a petroleum refinery in Illinois. Evaluated appropriateness of remedial costs incurred over 30 years and analyzed cost allocation methodology development amongst several potentially responsible parties (PRPs).
Evaluated numerous insurance policies, costs incurred, and well completion activities at the Eisenbarth well pad in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania, where a fire and several explosions on a multi-well natural gas well pad resulted in a fish kill, environmental contamination and subsequent remediation. Assessed reasonableness of costs incurred and differential insurance coverage based upon remediation activities and invoicing records.
Reconstructed historic discharges, spills, waste disposal areas/landfills/dumps, and other sources of environmental contamination from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Michigan. Contaminants of interest included non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Compiled information on historic spills and environmental impacts from an oil field in California over a five-year period. Assessed ponds, pipelines, tanks, generators, berms, and impoundments. Evaluated potential transport to surface and groundwater resources.
Assessed relationship between groundwater quality and unconventional gas well density at households in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Performed statistical analysis of the data using multiple linear regression with Box-Cox transformations, correlation matrices, and principal component analysis (PCA) in R and spatial analysis in ArcGIS. Included adjustment for geological, hydrological, hydrogeological, climatological, soil composition, well characteristics.
Analyzed water column, chemistry, and biodegradation data for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Temporal and spatial analyses included overlaying conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD), fluorescence, and dissolved oxygen sensor array data with laboratory chemical analyses and biodegradation calculations. Assembled multi-million row database with environmental chemistry, ecological, acoustic monitoring, telemetry, and transmissometer data for use in the multi-jurisdictional, multi-billion dollar natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) claim.
Performed cost assessment of remediation activities at a large steel mill in Indiana. Remediation activities, including dredging of the adjacent river, were undertaken over several decades and in response to numerous Clean Water Act (CWA) and natural resource damages (NRD) consent decrees as well as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action order. The site covered thousands of acres and included numerous waste management units. Evaluated remediation costs against individual requirements of the consent decrees and corrective action order.
Chemical Product Manufacturing
Reconstructed historic disposal activities at the Oakdale, Woodbury, and Cottage Grove landfills in Minnesota. The Cottage Grove facility, in addition to being a disposal site, manufactured and researched PFAS. Reviewed soil and groundwater remediation activities, including installation of a full scale granular activated carbon (GAC) system at Oakdale, undertaken in accordance with state requirements. Evaluated permitting activity and compliance with historic regulations and management practices during the operational period for the landfills.
Evaluated more than 1,000 journal articles, poster presentations, government publications, and reports related to PFAS, as part of a review effort and database creation on the state of knowledge regarding this class of compounds.
Assessed compliance of architectural coatings with federal, state, and regional VOC regulations. Applied calculations to architectural coating formulations to verify compliance with EPA Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51 requirements, California Air Resources Board (CARB), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and Ozone Transport Commission VOC calculation methods. Developed data management tool to automate the calculation process and prevent user errors during data entry.
Assessed operation and disposal practices at a tannery in Michigan for potential per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) groundwater contamination. Compared tannery practices to state (primarily Part 201) and federal (RCRA, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 [CERCLA], CWA) requirements. Evaluated state of the knowledge for overall disposal practices and PFAS-related waste disposal at various times throughout the approximate 100-year history of the facility.
Evaluated costs incurred during participation in the Washington State Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP). Costs were related to remedy selection, remediation, and post-remedy monitoring. Contaminants of concern were formaldehyde and petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and formaldehyde and arsenic in groundwater. Assessed compliance with Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) and permitting requirements.
Power and Water
Assessed wastewater effluent limits in numerous countries throughout the world including: Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Hungary, Kuwait, Mexico, Peru, Romania, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. Industrial, municipal/domestic, and commercial dischargers were reviewed to evaluate potential application of membrane filtration technologies. Conducted in-depth review of the discharge regulations to identify enforcement drivers for agency action when violations occur.
Reviewed water reservoir and distribution system constructed in Washington in the early 1900s. Summarized previous repairs to the tunnels and floodgates and cost of the repairs.
Prepared technical reports on coal combustion product (CCP) constituents including lithium, cobalt, and boron. Structured literature review methodologies and conducted quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) for sections on: occurrences, uses, and sources; geochemistry and fate and transport; human health toxicology; and ecological toxicology.
Compiled violation and exceedance data for a wastewater treatment plant in Massachusetts. Compared National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements to discharge monitoring report (DMR) data extracted from EPA’s Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) databases.
Developed sampling and analysis plan (SAP), quality assurance project plan (QAPP), and health and safety plan (HASP) for investigation and characterization of a fly ash site in British Columbia.
Performed data extraction, mapping, and general characterization of soil, sediment, and groundwater chemistry data for nuclear power site, using data from a multi-billion row database maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy. Compared chemistry (metals, radionuclides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], VOCs, trichloroethene [TCE], perchloroethylene [PCE]) to benchmark criteria.
Mining and Refineries/Smelters
Performed numerous tasks related to the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and NRD efforts at the Upper Columbia River site in British Columbia and Washington State. Compiled soil and sediment chemistry database from the Washington State Department of Ecology Environmental Information Management System (EIMS) and individual research studies in northeastern Washington to estimate soil background levels for target analyte list (TAL) metals. Summarized mercury isotope data in sediment samples at numerous target and reference sites along the river. Assessed metals contributions to river sediments from natural (e.g., landslides) and anthropogenic (e.g., mining and smelting) sources.
Coordinated historic document management efforts for litigation involving cost allocation at a mine in New Mexico between governmental and private PRPs. Managed chemistry and ecological data collected over multiple decades at the mine and surrounding area.
Managed and analyzed soil data from a large residential area surrounding an historic copper smelter in New Jersey. Estimated impacts on a distance-weighted basis from the smelter stacks for lead and arsenic.
Performed data analysis on smelter residue material for lead in samples collected throughout a large residential area in Kansas. Compared concentrations among visual classification groupings and location around the residence (e.g., alley, walkway, driplines, etc.). Analysis was included in design of the remediation strategy.
Evaluated remediation costs for a mine site in Nevada under federal (CERCLA) and state (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP]) programs. Analysis included determination of cost drivers under the different programs.
Conducted historic evaluation of the Big River Mine Tailings site in Missouri, which included seven different mining sites. Compared site timeline to other comparable National Priorities List (NPL) mine sites for regulatory agency involvement and major milestones.
Determined reasonableness of costs incurred in response to unexpected interim remedial actions undertaken per Washington State MTCA to mitigate contaminated groundwater (TCE and daughter products). Impacts were from previous industrial dry cleaning operations located hydraulically upgradient and contaminated groundwater was withdrawn during construction dewatering in Seattle, WA. Reviewed chlorinated VOC (CVOC) movement in groundwater and efficacy of GAC and aeration treatment prior to discharge. Evaluated communications between operator and Washington State Department of Ecology in regards to construction stormwater general permit discharge compliance.
Analyzed groundwater levels and flows at a city well field in Oregon to assess whether withdrawal events coincided with settling events that resulted in damage to building foundations. Utilized time series analysis for data collected over 16 years and automated data output for real-time interpretation.
Solid Waste Treatment, Storage, Disposal
Reconstructed historic disposal operations at an Ohio landfill that received domestic, commercial, and industrial waste streams for over 50 years. Identified hazardous waste streams and waste streams burned via open burning or an air curtain destructor (ACD) that operated onsite. Compared soil chemistry data for contaminants of concern, primarily TCE and its daughter products, to benchmark values.
Reviewed permit requirements for solid waste disposal and waste to energy facilities in Oregon and Washington. Conducted permit searches on EPA’s Facility Registry Service (FRS) website.
Airports, Air Bases, and Marinas
Managed team to review over 100,000 documents to assess multiple airport sites in England that used PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). AFFF was used to extinguish training and real fires, and was spilled during various times throughout the airport operations.
Conducted data mining and analysis for 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) in groundwater adjacent to an historic air force base in California. Utilized the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (GAMA) and EPA Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) databases and evaluated historic releases of 1,2,3-TCP.
Evaluated adequacy of sediment samples previously collected from a marina in Washington to determine source(s) of contamination. Compared sediment concentrations and profiles to upland soil and groundwater sources to sources from marina operations including sandblasting and painting. Contaminants of concern included PAHs and metals.
Developed sampling and analysis plan (SAP), quality assurance project plan (QAPP), and health and safety plan (HASP) for an RI work plan at a vehicle maintenance facility operated by the Washington State Department of Transportation. Contaminants of concern at the site included metals, VOCs, SVOCs, PAHs, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH; including diesel and gasoline range organics), herbicides, and dioxins/furans. Conducted soil sampling at the site, including screening with a photoionization detector, in accordance with the RI work plan.
Reconstructed historic operation and spill information from a light and heavy-duty vehicle washing location in Oregon. Evaluated fate and transport of chlorinated (e.g., TCE and PCE) and non-chlorinated (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane) solvents using soil and groundwater chemistry data.
Managed complex multi-year project with the Kuwait Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the country’s water and waste management standards and laws and propose an updated government framework. Compared regulations to programs in the United States (CERCLA, RCRA, CWA), the European Union (EU Water/Waste Framework Directives, Globally Harmonized System [GHS], Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH]), Canada (Canadian Environmental Protection Act [CEPA], Canada Water Act), and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Performed a gap analysis of Kuwait’s environmental laws and reviewed interactions between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. Identified governmental framework support systems and environmental data collection, management, and reporting strategies. Worked with Ministry members to develop an integrated solid waste and wastewater effluent permitting system and permit documentation. Presented results to multi-agency project participants in Kuwait and developed training modules for current government employees involved in permitting, compliance, enforcement, and standard development. Coordinated meetings for project team members in four countries and five time zones.
Developed database to organize and track historic operations, entity lineage, chemical compounds, transport pathways, and compliance violations to allocate costs among hundreds of PRPs at a large and complex site including soil, surface water, and sediment contamination. The site of interest was a highly industrialized area in New Jersey that included pre-1900 operations and a variety of industry types including: chemical production, automotive repair, smelting and refining, electro-plating, pharmaceuticals, paint manufacturing, gas stations, wastewater treatment plants, paper manufacturing, transit centers, electric and gas utilities, metal fabrication, asphalt manufacturing, drum cleaning and reclamation, and solid waste treatment/storage/disposal facilities. Additionally, assessed numerous municipalities and associated public services (e.g., state-owned facilities and combined sewer overflows) for contributions. Utilized EPA and state regulatory databases for permitted facilities (e.g., RCRA and NPDES permits) to extract information on compliance violations.
Performed temporal trend analysis of proposed, final, constructed, and deleted sites on the EPA NPL.
Performed database QA/QC and management for the sediment chemistry database for the Western Port Angeles Harbor RI/FS work to fill in data gaps. Updated toxicity equivalence (TEQ) calculated values for dioxins and PCBs in sediment chemistry samples.
Analyzed data describing precipitation and piezometer levels from monitoring wells located on the Whitman Bench above the Oso Landslide. Assessed relationship between rainfall events and groundwater levels and automated data processing and output.
Assessed exposure for over a hundred individuals to asbestos through work place, military, personal hobby, consumer product, and domestic sources. Reviewed depositions, Social Security records, military records, medical records, and answers to interrogatories, to provide resulting summary reports to experts.