Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) Laboratory

Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), a.k.a. crash test dummies, are often a critical element of a test. They can be used to evaluate and assess human kinematics and injury potential in a variety of accident modes.  Exponent’s ATD laboratory houses a number of ATDs appropriate for evaluating kinematics and injury potential in frontal, rear, side, and rollover motor vehicle crashes, motorcycle crashes, fall events, and helmet and protective gear evaluations. Our inventory includes child crash test dummies, 5th-percentile females, 50th-percentile males, and 95th-percentile males, all of which are stored in an environmentally controlled laboratory. These dummies are calibrated and maintained regularly.  Our skilled technicians offer a variety of ATD instrumentation options to record an occupant’s dynamic response to an impact, allowing assessment of injury potential, including comparisons with federal safety standard injury criteria.  Further, we offer modifications such that specialized anthropometry (i.e., height, weight, and body morphology) can be achieved as required for an investigation.

The table below represents the typical inventory of ATDs at Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center in Phoenix, Arizona.   Other ATD types may be available upon request.  Please contact the ATD lab for more information.





50th male

The HIII-50 dummy is used extensively in automotive crash testing and injury evaluation studies. Its height and weight are representative of a mid-sized male.


50th male

The HII-50 dummy is used for a number of applications including automotive crash testing and aircraft seat testing.  Its height and weight are consistent with a mid-sized male.


50th male

The SID (side impact dummy) was designed to evaluate side impact protection systems.  It can be built with the head and neck of a HIII-50 male dummy.


95th male

The HIII-95 dummy has a height and weight that is consistent with a large-sized male.


5th female

The HIII-5F dummy has a height and weight that is consistent with a small-sized female or a 12-year-old child.



The HIII-6C dummy has a height and weight representative of a 6- year-old child.



The HIII-3C dummy has a height and weight representative of a 3- year-old child.



The CRABI dummy was designed to evaluate child restraint systems in automotive crash testing. Its height and weight are representative of a 12-month-old child.



The CAMI dummy has a height and weight representative of a 6-month-old child and its mass distribution matches that of an infant.

Exponent’s ATD lab includes fixtures necessary to perform calibration testing on ATDs to ensure they meet standards between regularly scheduled maintenance.


Modification can be made to an ATD to meet height, weight, or body morphology criteria as needed for a particular test. Weight ballasts and height modifications are applied in such a way so as to match the mass distribution and physical proportions of a target human.

Available ATD instrumentation includes head accelerometers and angular rate sensors, upper and lower neck load cells, chest potentiometers and accelerometers, lumbar load cells, pelvic accelerometers, femur load cells, knee clevis, and tibia load cells.  Other instrumentation may be available from outside sources or custom manufactured to meet a specialized need; contact the ATD Lab for more information. Exponent also offers an on-board data acquisition system such that data can be collected within an unconstrained and untethered ATD.

Exponent also maintains an H-point (or hip-point) machine in order to determine the location of a standard-sized occupant’s hip center relative to the vehicle floor, seat, and restraints.  The H-point in a vehicle is relevant when evaluating vehicle design.

The ATD laboratory also features equipment that can be used for component level testing, such as the head drop rail used for free-fall impacts including helmet performance evaluation.


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